June 28, 2022


Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases




Essential oils and the constituents in them exhibit different pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive, anxiolytic-like, and anticonvulsant effects. They are widely applied as a complementary therapy for people with anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, pain, and cognitive deficit symptoms through inhalation, oral administration, and aromatherapy. Recent studies show that essential oils are emerging as a promising source for modulation of the GABAergic system and sodium ion channels.


antinociceptive action 抗侵害受容作用
Nociceptive pain(侵害受容性疼痛): 侵害刺激や炎症によって活性化された発痛物質が侵害受容器を活性化することによって引き起こされる痛み
Anxiolytic-like effect抗不安様作用
anticonvulsant effects. 抗けいれん作用
cognitive deficit. 認知障害
GABAergic system GABA作動性システム
sodium ion channels. ナトリウムチャネル

This review summarizes the recent findings regarding the pharmacological properties of essential oils and compounds from the oils and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Specifically, the review focuses on the essential oils and their constituents targeting the GABAergic system and sodium channels, and their antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties. Some constituents target transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to exert analgesic effects. Some components could interact with multiple therapeutic target proteins, for example, inhibit the function of sodium channels and, at the same time, activate GABAA receptors. The review concentrates on perspective compounds that could be better candidates for new drug development in the control of pain and anxiety syndromes.


Keywords: essential oils, terpenes, GABA receptor, sodium channel, transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, pain, epilepsy, analgesics, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, antinociception, CNS, sensory neurons



GABA Receptor





Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid that functions as the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter for the central nervous system (CNS). It functions to reduce neuronal excitability by inhibiting nerve transmission. GABAergic neurons are located when the hippocampus, thalamus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and brainstem. The balance between inhibitory neuronal transmission via GABA and excitatory neuronal transmission via glutamate is essential for proper cell membrane stability and neurologic function.


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) : ガンマアミノ酪酸(GABA


June 24, 2022


The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application



Sachiko Koyama 1,* and Thomas Heinbockel 2,*

1 Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA

2 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
ハワード大学、ワシントンD.C 医学部解剖学科



Essential oils have been used in multiple ways, i.e., inhaling, topically applying on the skin, and drinking. Thus, there are three major routes of intake or application involved: the olfactory system, the skin, and the gastro-intestinal system. Understanding these routes is important for clarifying the mechanisms of action of essential oils.


the mechanisms of action 作用機序

Here we summarize the three systems involved, and the effects of essential oils and their constituents at the cellular and systems level. Many factors affect the rate of uptake of each chemical constituent included in essential oils. It is important to determine how much of each constituent is included in an essential oil and to use single chemical compounds to precisely test their effects.

ここでは、関連する3つのシステム、および 精油とその成分の効果を細胞およびシステムレベルで要約します。多くの要因は、精油に含まれる各化学成分の取り込み速度に影響を与えます。 精油に含まれる各成分どの程度含まれるかいるかを決定し、単体の化学成分を使用して その効果を正確に検証することが重要です。

Studies have shown synergistic influences of the constituents, which affect the mechanisms of action of the essential oil constituents. For the skin and digestive system, the chemical components of essential oils can directly activate gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors and transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels, whereas in the olfactory system, chemical components activate olfactory receptors. Here, GABA receptors and TRP channels could play a role, mostly when the signals are transferred to the olfactory bulb and the brain.


transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels:一過性受容体電位チャネル(TRP)チャネル
transient receptor 一過性受容体
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA):ガンマアミノ酪酸(GABA)受容体

Keywords: olfactory system; skin; gastro-intestine system; essential oils; oil constituents;

キーワード: 嗅覚系、皮膚、消化管系、精油、精油成分;


GABA - 脳科学辞典



温度感受性TRPチャンネル Science of Kampo Medicine 漢方医学 Vol.37 No.3 2013より


TRP チャネルの機能
TRP チャネルは細胞膜に存在するイオンチャネル型受容体の1 つであり,ヒトでは 6 つのサブファミリー,27 チャネルで構成される膨大なチャネル群です(図 1)1)1997 年に温度感受性TRP チャネルが発見されてから2),16年の間に9つのTRPチャネルが温度感受性であることがわかってきました 3)

ヒトの身体は外部の環境温度に応じて意識的に,あるいは無意識的に体温調節を行いながら深部体温を維持しています.環境温度の感知は,ヒトのみならず鳥類などの恒温動物をはじめ両生類,爬虫類,魚類などの変温動物,さらに無脊椎動物や単細胞生物など,多くの生物の生存にとって重要な機能の 1 つです.温度感受性Transient Receptor Potential(TRP)チャネルは,温度のみならず多くの化学的・物理的刺激を感受するセンサーとして多様な生体機能に関わっている.最近ではTRPチャネルが遺伝子疾患や消化器疾患,大腸がん,肺疾患などに関与していることが報告され注目を集めている.また,TRPV1チャネルは血管拡張や血流増加,腸管運動促進作用に関与することが明らかになってきた.ここではTRPV1チャネルの発見者でTRPチャネル研究の第一人者である富永真琴先生に,TRPチャネル研究の経緯と生体における機能について解説していただいた.



受容体 TRPV1 活性化温度閾値 43℃<

受容体 TRPV3 、活性化温度閾値32-39℃<
発現部位:皮膚・感覚神経・脳 脊髄・胃・大腸

受容体 TRPM8 活性化温度閾値<25-28℃

受容体 TRPA1  活性化温度閾値<17℃(?)

TRPV1 は酸の刺激でも活性化します.カプサイシンや熱, 酸は,いずれも痛みを引き起こすことから,TRPV1 の反応性は 痛み刺激を伝える神経が複数の 侵害刺激に反応することをよく 説明します.ほかにも黒胡椒の 辛み成分であるピペリンや,生 姜の辛み成分のジンゲロン,ジ ンゲロールなどもカプサイシン 受容体 TRPV1 に作用します. TRPV 1 活性化は灼熱感をもたらし,交感神経系を介して産熱も引き起こすことから,寒い地 域では,暖をとる意味でトウガ ラシを靴下や下着の中に入れた り,生姜風呂に入って体を温め たりするのです


June 16, 2022

西洋型食生活はマウスの匂い関する学習および嗅覚記憶を損なうScience dailyより

Western diet impairs odor-related learning and olfactory memory in mice



Date: November 4, 2020


Source: American Chemical Society

出典 アメリカ化学会



Problems with the sense of smell appear to be an early indicator of cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes. However, it's unknown whether factors such as diet and obesity play a role in who develops these symptoms. Now, researchers have found that mice fed a moderate-fat, high-sugar chow (simulating a Western diet) showed a faster decline in their ability to learn and remember new odors.





Problems with the sense of smell appear to be an early indicator of cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes. However, it's unknown whether factors such as diet and obesity play a role in who develops these symptoms. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Chemical Neuroscience found that mice fed a moderate-fat, high-sugar chow (simulating a Western diet) showed a faster decline in their ability to learn and remember new odors.


type 2 diabetes (T2D) :2型糖尿病
ACS Chemical Neuroscience*.米国化学会神経化学学術誌

Some people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) show signs of olfactory dysfunction, including problems with detecting, discriminating or recalling odors, or even a complete loss of smell. These symptoms are strongly associated with cognitive impairment, and evidence suggests they could be an early indicator of the condition in people with T2D. Obesity, which is the main risk factor for T2D, has also been associated with olfactory dysfunction, but the impact of obesity on the sense of smell specifically in these patients is unclear, as studies have produced conflicting results. Also, it's unknown whether certain nutrients in the diet, such as fat and sugar, affect the sense of smell. To find out, Grazyna Lietzau, Cesare Patrone and colleagues wanted to compare the effects of two diets on different olfactory functions in mice: a high-fat, moderate-sugar diet (HFD); and a moderate-fat, high-sugar diet (similar to a Western diet, WD).In mice, both diets cause obesity and T2D-like features.

2型糖尿病(T2D)の一部の人々は、匂いの感知、識別、または想起の問題、または匂いの完全な喪失を含む、嗅覚機能障害の徴候を示す。これらの症状は認知障害と強く関連しており、証拠はそれらがT2D患者の状態の早期指標である可能性があることを示唆しています。T2Dの主な危険因子である肥満も嗅覚障害と関連しているが、これらの患者の嗅覚に対する肥満の影響は、研究が相反する結果を生み出しているため、不明である。また、脂肪や糖分など、食事中の特定栄養素が嗅覚に影響を与えるかどうかは不明です。今回、Grazyna Lietzau、Cesare Patroneたちの研究グループは、マウスの嗅覚機能が異なるマウスに及ぼす2つの食事の影響、すなわち高脂肪・中程度糖質食(HFD)と中程度脂肪・高糖質食(西洋型食生活を模擬))を比較したいと考えていたマウスでは、両方の食事が肥満および2型糖尿病(T2D)様の特徴を引き起こす。

At one, three and eight months, the team performed tests to assess different olfactory functions in the mice. By eight months, both the HFD- and WD-fed mice had impaired odor detection, odor-related learning and olfactory memory compared with the control mice.However, the WD-fed mice had a faster decline in the latter two abilities, showing olfactory dysfunction as early as 3 months after beginning the diet. These findings indicate that a high dietary sugar content, rather than hyperglycemia or weight gain, is linked with early deterioration of olfactory functions related to learning and memory, the researchers say.How sugar causes these effects, and whether they are also seen in humans, the researchers acknowledge, remains to be determined.

1ヶ月、3ヶ月、8ヶ月で、チームはマウスのさまざまな嗅覚機能を評価するためのテストを実施しました。8ヶ月までに、高脂肪、中程度糖質食 (HFD)および中程度脂肪、高糖質食(西洋型食生活(WD)で飼育されたマウスの両方が、対照マウスと比較して、匂いの感知、匂い関連学習および嗅覚記憶障害を有していた。しかし、WDで飼育されたマウスは後者の2つの能力のより速い低下を有し、食事開始後3ヶ月という早い時期に嗅覚機能障害を示した。これらの知見は、高血糖や体重増加ではなく、高糖質の食べ物が学習と記憶に関連する嗅覚機能の早期低下と関連していることを示している、と研究者らは述べている。しかし、食事や肥満などの要因が、このような症状の発症に関与しているかどうかは不明であった。

Hyperglycemia 高血糖


June 13, 2022


The Monoterpenoid Perillyl Alcohol: Anticancer Agent and Medium to Overcome Biological Barriers



Pharmaceutics. 2021 Dec; 13(12): 2167.




Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a naturally occurring monoterpenoid related to limonene that is present in the essential oils of various plants. It has diverse applications and can be found in household items, including foods, cosmetics, and cleaning supplies. Over the past three decades, it has also been investigated for its potential anticancer activity. Clinical trials with an oral POH formulation administered to cancer patients failed to realize therapeutic expectations, although an intra-nasal POH formulation yielded encouraging results in malignant glioma patients. Based on its amphipathic nature, POH revealed the ability to overcome biological barriers, primarily the blood?brain barrier (BBB), but also the cytoplasmic membrane and the skin, which appear to be characteristics that critically contribute to POH’s value for drug development and delivery.


amphipathic nature 両親媒性

両親媒性分子(りょうしんばいせいぶんし、amphiphilic molecule)は1つの分子内に水(水相)になじむ「親水基」と油(有機相)になじむ「親油基」(疎水基)の両方を持つ分子の総称。界面活性剤などのほか、リン脂質などの生体内分子や両親媒性高分子などがある。ウィキペディアより

cytoplasmic membrane 細胞質膜

In this review, we present the physicochemical properties of POH that underlie its ability to overcome the obstacles placed by different types of biological barriers and consequently shape its multifaceted promise for cancer therapy and applications in drug development.


We summarized and appraised the great variety of preclinical and clinical studies that investigated the use of POH for intranasal delivery and nose-to-brain drug transport, its intra-arterial delivery for BBB opening, and its permeation-enhancing function in hybrid molecules, where POH is combined with or conjugated to other therapeutic pharmacologic agents, yielding new chemical entities with novel mechanisms of action and applications.


drug transport, 薬物輸送
intra-arterial delivery  動脈内送達

Keywords: blood brain barrier; drug formulation; drug hybrids; intra-arterial delivery; intracranial malignancies; intranasal delivery; monoterpene; monoterpenoid; NEO100



June 10, 2022


The Brain-Nose Interface: A Potential Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance Site in Humans



The human brain functions at the center of a network of systems aimed at providing a structural and immunological layer of protection. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) maintains a physiological homeostasis that is of paramount importance to proper neurological activity.


CSF is largely produced in the choroid plexus where it is continuous with the brain extracellular fluid and circulates through the ventricles. CSF movement through the central nervous system has been extensively explored.


脈絡叢(みゃくらくそう、英:choroid)は脳脊髄液を産出し、脳室に分泌する重要な器官である。また脈絡叢上皮細胞は毛細血管の血管内皮細胞とともに血液脳脊髄液関門(blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier、BCSFB)を形成する。ウィキペディアより

brain extracellular fluid 脳細胞外液

Across numerous animal species, the involvement of various drainage pathways in CSF, including arachnoid granulations, cranial nerves, perivascular pathways, and meningeal lymphatics, has been studied. Among these, there is a proposed CSF clearance route spanning the olfactory nerve and exiting the brain at the cribriform plate and entering lymphatics.


arachnoid granulations クモ膜顆粒
cranial nerves 脳神経
perivascular 血管周囲性
meningeal lymphatics 髄膜リンパ管

While this pathway has been demonstrated in multiple animal species, evidence of a similar CSF egress mechanism involving the nasal cavity in humans remains poorly consolidated.


This review will synthesize contemporary evidence surrounding CSF clearance at the nose-brain interface, examining across species this anatomical pathway, and its possible significance to human neurodegenerative disease.


neurodegenerative disease.  神経変性疾患

Our discussion of a bidirectional nasal pathway includes examination of the immune surveillance in the olfactory region protecting the brain. Overall, we expect that an expanded discussion of the brain-nose pathway and interactions with the environment will contribute to an improved understanding of neurodegenerative and infectious diseases, and potentially to novel prevention and treatment considerations.


immune surveillance 免疫監視

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; CSF; cribriform plate; neurodegeneration; neuroimaging.




Study of the olfactory drainage route for CSF in humans may permit measurement of brain specific biomarkers in nasal exudates, including neuronal proteins, such as tau protein, and may increase the sensitivity for identification of prostaglandin D2 synthase (β-trace protein), an established CSF-leak marker (PMID: 27614217).

ヒトにおける髄液の嗅覚排出経路の研究により、タウタンパク質などの神経細胞タンパク質を含む鼻腔滲出液中の脳特異的バイオマーカーの測定が可能になり、確立した髄液漏出マーカーであるプロスタグランジンD2合成酵素(β-痕跡タンパク質)の特定感度が高まる可能性があります(PMID: 27614217)。


High Correlation among Brain-Derived Major Protein Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Implication for Amyloid-Beta and Tau Protein Changes in Alzheimer's Disease





The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in homeostasis of the brain. We previously demonstrated that major CSF proteins such as lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS) and transferrin (Tf) that are biosynthesized in the brain could be biomarkers of altered CSF production. Here we report that the levels of these brain-derived CSF proteins correlated well with each other across various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD).



(1) 研究領域の目的及び意義 免疫監視(immune surveillance)という概念は、1960年代に Burnet によってはじめて提唱された概念であ る。この概念は、「癌細胞を見つけ出しそれを排除して生体の恒常性を維持するための免疫系による監視」という仮 説から出発し、現在では、「時間的空間的に緻密にプログラムされた、個体の恒常性(homeostasis) 維持と保全のた めに必須の免疫系による security system である」と考えられている。近年のゲノム科学や免疫学研究の飛躍的な 進歩にもかかわらず、この免疫学の中心的概念は依然としてその全貌は明らかにされていない。それは、この概念 が免疫系の根本的な機能であることから、免疫現象が分子、細胞、個体レベルで解き明らかにされて初めて取り組むことの出来るテーマであるからと考えられる。

リポカリン型プロスタグランジン D 合成酵素の リガンド相互作用解析

リポカリン型プロスタグランジンD合成酵素(L-PGDS) は,哺乳類の脳内や心臓に多く存在しており,睡眠誘発物質であるプロスタグランジン D2(PGD2)を合成するだけ でなく,その他種々の疎水性低分子の輸送に関わっている 多機能タンパク質である。また,L-PGDS が属するリポカ リンファミリーのタンパク質は,近年,抗体に次ぐ工学的 に有望な分子認識鋳型として注目されている。


June 09, 2022




Olfactory route for cerebrospinal fluid drainage into the cervical lymphatic system in a rabbit experimental model



cervical lymphatic 頸部リンパ

The present study analyzed the anatomical association between intracranial subarachnoid space and the cervical lymphatic system. X-ray contrast medium and Microfil® (Microfil compounds fill and opacify microvascular and other spaces of non-surviving animals and post-mortem tissue under physiological injection pressure)were injected into the cisterna magna of the rabbit, and perineural routes of cerebrospinal fluid outflow into the lymphatic system were visualized.


intracranial subarachnoid space 頭蓋内くも膜下腔
cervical lymphatic 頸リンパ
X-ray contrast medium X線造影剤

cisterna magna 大槽
Cisterna Magnaとは?
脳のくも膜下腔の開口部である大槽は、その大きさからそう呼ばれています。 実際、中枢神経系のこのギャップに見られる最大の開口部です。 大槽は小脳髄槽としても知られています。

Under a surgical operating microscope, Microfil was found within the subarachnoid space and along the olfactory nerves. At the nasal mucosa, a lymphatic network was identified near the olfactory nerves, which crossed the nasopharyngeal region and finally emptied into the superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes.


surgical operating microscope 手術用顕微鏡
nasopharyngeal region 鼻咽頭部
superficial cervical lymph nodes 浅頸リンパ節
deep cervical lymph nodes 深頸リンパ節

Under a light microscope, Microfil was visible around the olfactory nerves and within lymphatic vessels. These results suggested that cerebrospinal fluid drained from the subarachnoid space along the olfactory nerves to nasal lymphatic vessels, which in turn, emptied into the cervical lymph nodes. This anatomical route, therefore, allowed connection between the central nervous system and the lymphatic system.


nasal lymphatic vessels 鼻リンパ管
cervical lymph nodes 頸部リンパ節

Keywords: central nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph, subarachnoid space



June 08, 2022



Anatomical basis and physiological role of cerebrospinal fluid transport through the murine cribriform plate








Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows through the brain, transporting chemical signals and removing waste. CSF production in the brain is balanced by a constant outflow of CSF, the anatomical basis of which is poorly understood.


Here, we characterized the anatomy and physiological function of the CSF outflow pathway along the olfactory sensory nerves through the cribriform plate, and into the nasal epithelia. Chemical ablation of olfactory sensory nerves greatly reduced outflow of CSF through the cribriform plate. The reduction in CSF outflow did not cause an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), consistent with an alteration in the pattern of CSF drainage or production.


cribriform plate 篩板(しばん)
篩骨 しこつ
ethmoid bone
鼻腔の天井にある骨。最上部は前頭蓋窩からみることのできる篩板で,多数の小孔を貫いて嗅神経が鼻腔に入っている。内部に篩骨洞という副鼻腔の一つをもっている。ブリタニカ国際大百科事典 小項目事典「篩骨」

intracranial pressure (ICP):頭蓋内圧(ICP)

Our results suggest that damage to olfactory sensory neurons (such as from air pollution) could contribute to altered CSF turnover and flow, providing a potential mechanism for neurological diseases.


Keywords: anosmia; cerebrospinal fluid; cribriform; intracranial pressure; mouse; neuroscience



June 07, 2022


Intranasal administration of the chemotherapeutic perillyl alcohol results in selective delivery to the cerebrospinal fluid in rats





Perillyl alcohol (POH) has been extensively studied for the treatment of peripheral and primary brain tumors. The intranasal route of administration has been preferred for dosing POH in early-stage clinical trials associated with promising outcomes in primary brain cancer.


perillyl alcohol ペリリルアルコール(POH)

primary brain tumors 原発性脳腫瘍
intranasal route 鼻腔内経路

However, it is unclear how intranasal POH targets brain tumors in these patients. Multiple studies indicate that intranasally applied large molecules may enter the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through direct olfactory and trigeminal nerve-associated pathways originating in the nasal mucosa that bypass the blood–brain barrier. It is unknown whether POH, a small molecule subject to extensive nasal metabolism and systemic absorption,may also undergo direct transport to brain or CSF from the nasal mucosa.


cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 脳脊髄液
trigeminal nerve 三叉神経
small molecule 低分子化合物
nasal mucosa鼻粘膜

Here, we compared CSF and plasma concentrations of POH and its metabolite, perillic acid (PA), following intranasal or intravascular POH application. Samples were collected over 70 min and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography.


plasma concentrations血漿濃度
perillic acid (PA) ペリリン酸(PA)
intravascular  血管内

Intranasal administration resulted in tenfold higher CSF-to-plasma ratios for POH and tenfold higher CSF levels for PA compared to equal dose intravascular administration.


Our preclinical results demonstrate POH undergoes direct transport from the nasal mucosa to the CSF, a finding with potential significance for its efficacy as an intranasal chemotherapeutic for brain cancer.


chemotherapeutic  化学療法剤


June 05, 2022





神経膠腫(グリオーマ )治療に対する鼻腔内ペリリルアルコール:分子メカニズムおよび臨床開発





April 20, 2022

体内の嗅覚受容体は病気を嗅ぎ分けるのに役立つかもしれない。Science dailyより

Smell receptors in the body could help sniff out disease



Olfactory cells found throughout the body may help or harm depending on location


Full Story

A review of more than 200 studies reveals that olfactory receptors -- proteins that bind to odors that aid the sense of smell -- perform a wide range of mostly unknown functions outside the nose. The function of extra-nasal olfactory receptors has the potential to be used in the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions such as cancer. The article is published in the July issue of Physiological Reviews.


Olfactory, or smell, receptors were originally thought to be only in the sensory nerve cells (neurons) of nasal cavity tissues. However, more recent and extensive study suggests that the receptors "occur in nearly the entire human body, [and] they appear to be substantially more functionally important than previously suggested," researchers from Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany wrote. In addition to the receptors playing a major role in the sense of smell, "several essential physiological and pathophysiological processes have been described as targeted by human [olfactory receptors], including path finding, cell growth, [cell death], migration and secretion."


The research team summarized the location and purpose of certain types of olfactory receptors, including those that may be beneficial to general health:

研究チームは 総合的な健康状態に有益と思われるものを含む、ある種の嗅覚受容体の位置と目的についてまとめています。

*Receptors present in heart muscle cells may be a metabolic regulator of heart function.


metabolic regulator 代謝因子

*Receptors activated in the immune system have been seen to promote the death of certain types of leukemia cells.


*Smell receptors in the liver reduce the spread of liver cancer cells.


*Receptors in the skin increase the regeneration of skin cells and help speed wound healing.


The review also reveals ways in which olfactory receptors may affect the development of disease, including:


*Receptors concentrated in the prostate tissue, especially in men with prostate cancer, contribute to the reduction or progression of the disease.


*Receptors in the colon may reduce the growth of colon cancer cells.


*Receptors in the digestive tract may cause chronic diarrhea or constipation but may


The existence of olfactory receptors outside the nose -- either positive or negative -- plays an important role in disease progression and physiological function but is not yet fully understood. Their role as a possible biomarker for disease requires more research, the authors said. Study "must be expanded to develop promising clinical strategies in the future," the researchers wrote.



嗅覚受容体は、(ポジティブまたはネガティブ)の存在のことを読んで、Medicine Hands Massage Therapy for People with Cancerに出てくるがん遺伝子のことを思い出し紹介します。


*Proto-oncogene がん原遺伝子

Proto-oncogene、which control growth and tissue repair. The defective version of these genes are known as oncogenes. Their expression results in excessive cell proliferationMutation within control genes also cause failure of cell’s regulatory system that induce apoptosis (programed cell death) when cell senses it cannot repair damage to its own DNA


oncogene がん遺伝子

*Tumor suppress genes がん抑制遺伝子

Tumor suppress genes normally regulate cell growth in an measured fashion; they stifle tumor growth acting a braking system that halts inappropriate growth. When they are inactivated by mutation, uncontrolled cell cell proliferation is allowed to go unchecked.