December 02, 2022


“機能性フレグランス "の謎に迫る

Inside the Murky World of "Functional Fragrance"

Spritzing on perfumes that aim to boost your mood can feel like a convenient quick fix, but the science behind the claims remains shaky.



January 27, 2022

This fall, Addison Rae did what many celebrities and influencers have done before and launched a perfume line. The three perfumes have a slight twist from other celeb launches, however; her Happy AF, Chill AF, and Hyped AF are on trend not just for their slangy names but also because they tout ingredients that promise to "boost your mood."

この秋、tiktokスターアディソン・レイはこれまで多くのセレブやインフルエンサーが行ってきたことを行い、香水ラインを立ち上げた。彼女のHappy AF、Chill AF、Hyped AFの3つの香水は、そのスラング的な名前だけでなく、"気分を高める "ことを約束する成分を売り物にしているので、他のセレブの発売とは少しひねりが効いています。

Rae is not the only one to think fragrance consumers are after more than just smelling good. In 2019, the beauty supplement company The Nue Co launched its Functional Fragrance, a blend of palo santo, violet, and cardamom that promises to reduce stress, followed by Forest Lungs in 2020 and Mind Energy in 2021, which aim to produce some of the same health benefits associated with forest bathing and boost focus, respectively. Since 2016, natural perfume brand Heretic has incorporated wellness into its storytelling, including its September launch Dirty Hinoki, described as a "grounding" scent inspired by hinoki's potential ability to alleviate depression.

フレグランスの消費者が求めているのは、単に良い香りだけではないと考えるのは、レイだけではない。2019年には、英国美容サプリメント会社のTHE NUE CO.(ザ・ニュウコー)が、パロサント、バイオレット、カルダモンをブレンドし、ストレス軽減を約束する「Functional Fragrance機能性フレグランス」を発売し、2020年には「Forest Lungs」、2021年には、森林浴に伴う健康効果と集中力アップをそれぞれ目指す「Mind Energy」を発売している。2016年以降、自然派香水ブランドのヘレティックパルファムは、9月に発売した「ダーティヒノキ」を含め、ウェルネスをストーリーテリングに取り入れており、ヒノキの鬱を緩和する潜在能力にインスピレーションを得た「グラウンディング」の香りと表現しています。

ダーティ ヒノキ|汚れたヒノキ ? 香水通販 NOSE SHOP

The growing slate of mood-boosting fragrances represents not just a demand for a wide array of "wellness" products, with everything from bath bombs to oat milk promising such effects, but also consumers’ changing relationship to perfume. "Perfume for the longest time was really the attainable luxury end of a luxury brand," says Douglas Little, founder of and perfumer for Heretic. "And now I really think that that ideology for a certain group of people has faded, and the idea that the fragrance is made from better materials and it also, by the way, can help you relax, I think this is really the next wave of what we're seeing in personal wellness."

気分を高揚させるフレグランスが増えているのは、バスボムからオーツミルクまで、さまざまな「ウェルネス」商品への需要が高まっていることだけでなく、消費者の香水との関係の変化も表している。「香水は長い間、ラグジュアリーブランドの中でも手に入れやすい高級品でした」と、ヘレティックの創設者で調香師のDouglas Little氏は言います。「香水は、より良い素材から作られ、リラックス効果もあるという考え方は、パーソナル・ウェルネスに見られる次の波だと思います。

The market for wellness products is in of itself nothing new, says C?line Manetta, senior consumer science manager at International Flavors & Fragrances, Inc. (IFF). But what's changed in recent years, and especially with the COVID-19 pandemic, is the acceleration of demand for new products that address all aspects of life. "It's really 24/7 wellness. It's a continuous search for positive emotion," Manetta says. Fragrance is just the tip of the iceberg; an April 2021 report from consulting company, McKinsey, estimates the global wellness market to be worth more than $1.5 trillion, with 42 percent of consumers in their survey reporting wellness to be a top priority.


Enter Aromachology


That opens up an opportunity for fragrance developers like IFF to further their research into aromachology, the study of aromas on human behavior and emotion (aromatherapy, though similar, focuses exclusively on the use of natural essential oils for therapeutic purposes). This spring, IFF launched its Science of Wellness program to create scents that can purportedly aid in relaxation or boost energy. In recent years, Givaudan has developed new wellness-oriented technologies like DreamScentz, which uses fragrance aimed at enhancing sleep. Studies outside the fragrance world have also investigated fragrance's health benefits, with studies finding for example that linalool, found in lavender essential oil, may ease anxiety.


The Two Keys to Mastering the No-Makeup Look


Givaudan's launches and other developments give perfumers a new palette of wellness ingredients to incorporate into their formulas. An eau de parfum can feature dozens of ingredients, however, with up to 80 percent of a given formulation composed of alcohol. What matters though, according to Juliette Karagueuzoglou, senior perfumer at IFF who has made fragrances for the likes of Yves Saint Laurent and L'Artisan Parfumeur, is not the quantity of a wellness ingredient, but that you register its smell. "What is important is that, since you can smell it, since it is noticeable olfactively, you have the effect, because the impact is the smell on your brain," she says.


Manetta emphasizes though that regardless of any potential benefits, perfume is not a cure-all. "In perfumery, we are more talking about positive emotions, instead of anti-anxiety or anti-stress claims, because we are not drugs, we are not medicine."


A Search for Medical Alternatives


But the fact that they are not drugs is specifically what makes "functional fragrance," or any wellness-oriented product, appealing to some. "Modern medicine has been wonderful and life saving, but there are real gaps there still. And so, in general, people look for other things that they can do themselves," says psychologist Traci Stein, PhD, MPH. A beauty product like perfume that can be picked up for $40 without insurance or doctor intervention offers an attractive way to fill that gap at a time when four in 10 U.S. adults report they are struggling with symptoms of anxiety or depression. "I think people like having products that promise very quick results, and that don't require a doctor to step in and prescribe something," says Dr. Stein, who has written about the benefits of aromatherapy, but is cautious to label aromatherapy’s benefits as "proven," as research is not yet definitive.

しかし、薬ではないという事実が、特に「機能性フレグランス」、あるいはウェルネス志向の製品を魅力的にしているのです。「現代医学は素晴らしいもので、命を救ってくれるものですが、そこにはまだ本当のギャップがあります。と、一般的に、人々 は自分自身で出来る他のものを探して」心理学者 Traci Stein、博士、MPH は言います。米国の成人の10人に4人が不安や鬱の症状に苦しんでいると報告されている今、保険や医師の介入なしに40ドルで手に入る香水のような美容製品は、そのギャップを埋める魅力的な方法なのです。「スタイン博士は、アロマセラピーの効果について書いたことがありますが、研究がまだ確定的でないため、アロマセラピーの効果を「実証済み」とすることには慎重です。

However, consumers are not always aware of the limitations of aroma compounds, and "somebody who's going to seek out these [wellness] fragrances, who does have a real problem, may erroneously believe that they're likely to have a bigger effect," Dr. Stein says.


Behind the Claims


The often vague language used to describe the science behind these fragrances can also cause confusion for a nonexpert. Addison Rae’s fragrances contain "ingredients that have scored well on emotional responses," but it's hard to parse out the scientific meaning of that on its surface. According to Lori Mariano, managing partner at Hampton Beauty, which partnered with Addison Rae to develop the scents, this information came from their collaboration with the research and development team at fragrance company, Symrise: "[They] work[ed] with neuroscience experts to track and validate emotional responses based on brain activity upon smelling individual proprietary ingredients used in the fragrance formulations.”

これらのフレグランスの背後にある科学を説明するために使用される多くの曖昧な言葉も、専門家ではない人を混乱させる可能性がありますアディソン・レイのフレグランスには、「感情的な反応に対して良いスコアを出した成分」が含まれていますが、その科学的な意味を表面的に解析するのは困難です。アディソン・レイと提携して香りを開発した Hampton Beauty のマネージング パートナー、Lori Mariano によると、この情報は、ドイツの香料会社シムライズの研究開発チームとのコラボレーションから生まれた: “神経科学の専門家と一緒に、香料配合に使用される個々の独自の成分の香りを嗅いだときの脳活動に基づく感情的反応を追跡、検証することに取り組みました。"

On the other hand, sometimes a claim is specific, but the research behind it appears to come from the company itself. For example, "research conducted by The Nue Co" found a whopping 96 percent of its Functional Fragrance customers felt "instantly calmer" after using the product. When research on a product isn't conducted by an independent party, it can present a conflict of interest, notes Dr. Stein. [We've reached out to The Nue Co about their methodology and will update this article when we hear back.]

一方、宣伝文句が具体的であるにもかかわらず、その背景にある研究が企業自身のものであるかのように見えることがあります。例えば、「The Nue Coが行った調査」によると、同社の機能性フレグランスの顧客の実に96%が、その製品を使用した後に「瞬時に落ち着く」と感じていることが判明しました。製品の研究が独立した第三者によって行われていない場合、利害の対立が生じる可能性があると、スタイン博士は指摘しています。[私たちはThe Nue Coにその方法論について問い合わせたので、返事が来たらこの記事を更新します]。

"There's a lot of money to be made by being aware of people's desires to have control over their care."


"These things are pleasurable, and it feels like we're taking good care of ourselves," Dr. Stein adds. “And there's nothing wrong with that. I think companies are aware though, that there's a lot of money to be made by being aware of people's desires to have control over their care and to feel better right away.”


And it’s not just perfume: Beauty products as a whole are now promising a more holistic experience that is less about looking attractive and more about feeling good. In the case of perfume, that’s a marked shift from how the product has been marketed in recent years. "I would say it's going back to the origins of perfume, linking the perfume to wellbeing and other roles that are far from the sexy, social role that we are used to bringing to the perfume," Manetta says.


Fragrance has always sold a fantasy, and the fantasy of feeling good may certainly be more appealing than that of trying to fit a narrow beauty ideal. But, as with pretty much any product in the wellness industrial complex, the functional fragrance category is susceptible to overpromising.



IFF’s scent division has launched its Science of Wellness program to address consumer desires for a more holistic approach to well-being.


The program is designed to guide the creation of scents that support science-based consumer well-being, with emotional, cognitive and physical benefits. This includes scents that evoke happiness, relaxation, mindfulness and self-esteem.


IFF Science of Wellness is an integrated solution, combining 40 years of human conscious and unconscious measures, neurosciences, artificial intelligence and IFF ingredients.

Nicolas Mirzayantz, president, Scent, said, “IFF has a long history of research into the effects of fragrance on consumer wellness and emotions, along with an AI exploration initiated in 2006. Combining the results of these ongoing studies with the AI unique capabilities, a 15-year pioneer, is allowing our perfumers to awaken emotions and move into territories that we believe are more exciting and relevant for our customers and consumers alike. By pulling together our research, ingredients and technologies into one program, we are expanding our ability to serve growing consumer demand for wellness solutions."


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November 30, 2022


Indole In Perfumery: Fecal Florals


November 28, 2020

What gives florals their seductive power? Let me introduce you to a compound called indole.


Indole is, by definition, an aromatic heterocyclic compound which contains a six-membered benzene ring, fused to a five membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring.


aromatic heterocyclic compound 芳香族複素環式化合物
six-membered benzene ring 六員ベンゼン環
five membered nitrogen 含窒素5員環
pyrrole ringピロール環

If that doesn’t mean much to you, here’s the what you need to know; it smells.


But, perhaps poop isn’t the best description for indole. In its pure, isolated form, Indole is more like a musty, wet, yet also a penetrating sharp-clean smell. A sort of odd combination of wet-dog, stale hot breath and moth balls all rolled into one. Yes, this compound does contribute to the smell of feces ( mixed together a cornucopia of other things ) but trace amounts are also founds in “White” florals, like Jasmines, Tuberose, Neroli, Orange Blossom Gardenia, etc. What really creates the signature aroma of #2 is really when high concentrations of indole are mixed with humidity and the surrounding decaying molecules found in poop.

しかし、インドールには、うんこという表現は似つかわしくないかもしれない。インドールは、純粋な単体の状態では、カビ臭く、湿ったような、それでいて、鋭い清潔感のあるにおいである。濡れた犬、臭い息、蛾の巣を1つにまとめたような、奇妙な組み合わせだ。 しかし、この化合物は、ジャスミン、チュベローズ、ネロリ、オレンジブロッサム、ガーデニアなどの「ホワイト」フローラルにも微量に含まれている。 2の香りは、高濃度のインドールが、湿度やウンコに含まれる腐敗した分子と混ざり合ったときに発生するものだ。

Poop うんち
Musty かび臭い

Here’s the interesting part – In trace amounts ( around >1% ), the stench of pure indole actually mellows, losing the mustiness and becoming more “floral”, more ambient. In perfume, natural oils that contain indole are often used to bring intrigue and a seductive edge to a scent. Providing an indescribable, underlying “animalic” note that allures to the primal senses, similar in a way to how pheromones work.


When it comes to perfume, indole serves a new purpose… It seduces.


I am a little embarrassed to write this, but poop can be sexy. It’s similar to being in a public restroom and having the unfortunate experience of smelling someone else’s last ‘performance’. It’s repulsive and visceral, but at the same time a small part of you is extremely curious, a little intrigued in a primal way- a “what IS that? What did they eat? Do I smell like that?“- sort of way. It’s biological- look at animals. Anyone who has ever lived with dog will tell you that they sniff poop. This helps them gain information about who this dog is, what they ate, are they healthy enough to mate with, etc. This sort of poop-information-finding technique rings true though many mammals.


White Florals are dirtiest.


White florals are just that – white. Gardenia, Jasmines, Hyacinth, Tuberose, Orange blossom all fall into this category of being extremely rich in indoles. However a few other friends in the flower kingdom also hold trace amounts of the compound, such as rose, lilac and honeysuckle.


Jasmine, however, might be the dirtiest.


The essences of Jasmine, particularly the variety Jasmine Grandiflorum, is notorious for having a noticeable, STRONG indole note ( most jasmine oils contain around 2.5% of the pure stuff ). By no means do it smell like sniffing a toilet, but when faced with a pure jasmine oil, indole does bring a very noticeable wet- mustiness aroma, much like dirty, sweaty skin mixed into the narcotic floral-sweetness of fresh jasmine blooms. It can be unnerving in a way- it really makes you question you perception of scent and what is true. But this is where dilution makes things interesting.

ジャスミンのエッセンス、特にJasmine Grandiflorumという品種は、顕著に強いインドールノートを含有することで有名です(ほとんどのジャスミンオイルは、純粋なものを約2.5%含んでいます)。決してトイレの匂いを嗅ぐようなものではありませんが、ピュアなジャスミンオイルを前にしたとき、インドールは非常に顕著な湿ったかび臭い香りをもたらし、新鮮なジャスミンの花の麻薬的なフローラルな甘さの中に汚れた、汗ばんだ肌のような香りを混ぜます。それは、ある意味で不安なもので、香りの知覚と何が真実なのかを本当に疑わせるものです。しかし、これは希釈が物事を面白くする場所です。

Jasminum grandiflorum ジャスミン 和名オオバナソケイ
科名:モクセイ科 ソケイ属
原産地:南アジアのインドや、パキスタンのSalt Rangeという山とラワルピンディ地区500-1500mの標高に自生

As mentioned above, pure jasmine oil is roughly 2.5% pure indole. That’s a noticeable amount to any nose. But, think of the last time you’ve walked by blooming jasmine ( or even smelled a white lily or wild honeysuckle ). The scent is very pleasant, sweet, floral, seductive. Indole is in there, but in such a limited amount, that it only adds a seductive, “alive” quality that you come to associate with florals. There’s nothing toilet-y about it.

前述したように、純粋なジャスミンオイルは、およそ2.5%の純粋なインドールです。それは、任意の鼻に顕著な量です。 しかし、最後に咲いたジャスミン(あるいは、白ユリや野生のスイカズラの香り)のそばを通ったときのことを思い出してください。その香りはとても心地よく、甘く、華やかで、魅惑的だ。インドールがありますが、そのような限られた量では、それだけで魅惑的な、「生きている」品質、フローラルを関連付けるに来るを追加します。それについてトイレのようなものは何もありません。

Now take about 10,000 lbs of those jasmine flowers, and distill them into 2.2lbs of oil. All the same fragrant molecules are there, just much more concentrated. With indole being present at a more condensed level, the sexy-sultry edge of fresh flowers, now becomes muddled with a much mustier, dirty undertone. The key to indole’s seduction is in dilution.


Indole and Serotonin


Perhaps the most interesting thing about Indole is its relationship to Serotonin. Indole is an intermediate that helps compose the the amino acid Tryptophan. Tryptophan is a precursor to the calming neurotransmitter serotonin. In short, the “indole ring”, as described in the beginning of this article, is found in the calming/happy serotonin chemical, also found in anti-depressants and foods like chocolate, dairy products and pumpkin seeds.


Not without controversy, Indole can be a polarizing scent. While some love the sometimes sharp, animalic edge it provides, others find it to be troublesome and cause headaches. For the indole-adverse crowd; There are non-indolic white floral scents out there- however they are generally not always natural. Synthetics fragrances can be synthesized without the indole compound or naturals can be fractionated to have it removed. All equally floral in their own right, however they can be a little flat and dry. That special, sparkling, life-like quality that REAL flowers exude is lost without the inclusion of our peculiar friend, Indole. So let’s appreciate this molecule for all the life that they bring to the party.

インドールには賛否両論がありますが、 インドールは好みが分かれる香りです。ある人は、時々、インドールの、鋭い、動物的なエッジさを愛するが、厄介で頭痛の種になる人もいます。インドール嫌いな群集のため;非インドールの白い花の香りがある-しかし、一般的に常に自然ではないです。インドール化合物を含まない合成香料や、インドール化合物を除去した天然香料もある。すべて同じフローラルの権利で、しかし、彼らは少しフラットと乾燥することができます。インドールという特殊な化合物が含まれていないと、本物の花々が放つ特別な輝きや生命力が失われてしまうのです。だから、この分子がパーティにもたらすすべての生命に感謝しよう。

Dirty, musty, and full of life. Thank you, indole.


This post originally published on




Indole is an essential molecule for plant interactions with herbivores and pollinator


Indole biosynthesis and catabolism





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November 28, 2022




An ode to elegance and purity, a symbol of royalty and femininity, white flowers have been very popular with perfumers for many years. However, behind their apparent wisdom lie much richer, sensual and even daring facets! And some noses no longer hesitate to show this other “personality”. Let’s find out what’s inside the perfume of white flowers…

優雅さと純粋さへの頌歌、王族と女性らしさの象徴であるホワイトフラワーは、長年にわたって調香師に非常に人気があります。しかし、彼らの見かけの知恵の裏には、はるかに豊かで官能的で大胆な側面さえあります! そして、一部の香りはもはやこの他の「個性」を示すことを躊躇しません。ホワイトフラワーの香水の中身を探ってみましょう。

Portrait of flowers like no other


The queens of floral notes


There is an incredible variety of floral notes in perfumery. We think in particular of the rosy nuances, created by the various types of rose or the peony. There are also powdery flowers, of which iris and violet are the perfect ambassadors. Others are more spring-like, such as narcissus or daffodil, while some give off spicier notes, such as carnation or immortal. But among all these notes, we find a category very appreciated by perfumers: white flowers. Unlike other floral nuances, they have a dual olfactory profile, between freshness and sensuality.

フローラルノートの女王たち香水には、実にさまざまなフローラルノートがあります。特に、さまざまな種類のバラやシャクヤクが作り出すローズ調のニュアンスを思い浮かべます。また、パウダー フラワーもあり、アイリスやバイオレットは完璧な大使です。水仙やラッパズイセンのような春らしい花もあれば、カーネーションやイモータル(ヘリクリサム)のようなスパイシーな香りを放つ花もある。しかし、これらの香りの中で、調香師たちが高く評価しているのが、ホワイトフラワーである。他の花のニュアンスとは異なり、フレッシュさと官能的な香りを併せ持つ。

rosy nuances ローズ調のニュアンス

The white flowers


In perfumery, white flowers refer to essences, extracted from flowers with light petals. These perfumed materials are generally obtained by steam distillation of plants. The most known are :


Jasmine: an emblematic flower, jasmine is one of the ingredients most used by noses. Its fragrance is rich, quite sweet with fruity and solar undertone. It brings light and power to a fragrance.

ジャスミン: 象徴的な花であるジャスミンは、匂いで最もよく使われる原料のひとつです。ジャスミンの香りは、フルーティーで、ソーラーアンダートーンのニュアンスを持つ、濃厚でかなり甘い香りです。香りに光とパワーをもたらす。

The tiare flower: shrub from the Pacific, the tiare produces a flower with many virtues and a mesmerizing scent. Its absolute diffuses a sweet and floral smell with solar and exotic nuances, which is used to make monoi.


tiare flower:ティアレフラワー(学名:Gardenia taitensis)

Tuberose: this bewitching charmer gives off a very feminine fragrance in which we can distinguish milky, solar accents but also honeyed and almondy notes. This ingredient is very powerful and persistent.


Ylang-ylang: this raw material distils a very powerful perfume, typical of white flowers with a solar, creamy and fruity side. But ylang-ylang also brings a spicy aspect and powdery nuances.
The frangipani flower: sacred flower of Asia, it delivers a divine perfume between freshness and vanilla scents with almond tones that makes it subtly gourmand. It is the exotic white flower par excellence.


The frangipani flower: sacred flower of Asia, it delivers a divine perfume between freshness and vanilla scents with almond tones that makes it subtly gourmand. It is the exotic white flower par excellence.


Orange blossom and neroli: these different ingredients come from the bigaradier tree, which produces the bitter orange. Both fresh and tangy, these materials have been adored for hundreds of years. Discover all their secrets here.


Gardenia: Coco Chanel’s favorite flower, its essence is mainly used in high-end feminine creations. Its fragrance is subtle but persistent, with green and fruity tones, sometimes with metallic accents.

ガーデニア: ココ・シャネルが最も愛した花で、そのエッセンスは主に高級フェミニン製品に使用されています。グリーンとフールーティなトーンに、時にはメタリックなアクセントを加えた香りは、繊細でありながら持続性があります。

Magnolia: still little used in perfumery, the magnolia is nevertheless an ingredient that does not lack interest! Its solar and sensual perfume is quite fleeting. It brightens up compositions with its vegetal and floral notes, quite delicate.

マグノリア: 香水ではまだあまり使われていませんが、マグノリアの香りはとても興味深いものです。太陽的で官能的な香りは、非常に儚いものです。植物的でフローラルな香りは、とてもデリケートでコンポジションを明るくしてくれます。

There are other lesser-known or little-used white flowers that are just as rich and sensual. This is the case with white rose, osmanthus or some muted flowers such as lily of the valley or honeysuckle.


The use of white flowers in perfumery


Between purity and sensuality


A staple of perfumery for centuries, white flowers were first favored by noses for their elegant and refined image. Their immaculate whiteness evokes virginal purity and is often found in the bridal bouquet. As the absolute essence of femininity, the scent of white flowers has long been reserved for wise, even candid fragrances. However, if elegance defines them, sensuality also applies to these ingredients which are far from being as chaste as they seem!


Indeed, white flowers also reveal a fragrance with an exacerbated sensuality. Almost all white flowers naturally contain indole, an olfactory molecule with an animal scent. Subtly dosed, this organic compound brings a very wild, even sexual aspect. Aware of this olfactory paradox, perfume designers have been moving away from the wisdom of white flowers for several years. They now use them in much more assertive compositions.


Olfactory associations of white flowers


Thanks to their great richness, the fragrance of white flowers can be combined very easily with many accords. They can highlight warm and oriental notes such as ambergris, vanilla or tobacco. Also, these sunny essences accompany marvelously the spicy nuances or the fruity ingredients. Moreover, they bring a lot of depth and hold to the citrus compositions. The different white flowers also have the ability to match each other very well, thanks to their similar olfactory composition. Perfumers can create bouquets of white flowers, which they usually position at the middle note of the fragrance to give it relief.




インドール(Indole)は、分子式 C8H7N、分子量 117.15 で、ベンゼン環とピロール環が縮合した構造をとる有機化合物である。窒素原子の孤立電子対が芳香環の形成に関与しているためインドールは塩基ではない。





対応する置換基はインドリル基と呼ばれる。 インドールは求電子置換反応を3位に受けやすく、インドールに置換基のついた構造はトリプトファンに由来する神経伝達物質のセロトニンやメラトニン、麦角アルカロイド(またそれをもとに合成されたLSD)など幻覚作用を示すアルカロイドに含まれる。また植物ホルモンの一種オーキシン(インドリル-3-酢酸、IAA)のほか、人工化合物では非ステロイド性抗炎症剤のインドメタシン、βブロッカーのピンドロールなどにも含まれる。


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November 26, 2022

ネロリ香水 - 特性、蒸留、歴史


ネロリ香水 - 特性、蒸留、歴史

Neroli perfume is made from the essence or essential oil derived from the orange blossoms that are harvested from the bitter orange trees. The natural fragrance of these white flowers offers the pleasure of enjoying a pleasant aroma to a very few lucky people who truly love and choose natural perfumes of neroli.


The unique olfactory notes of orange flowers emanate distinctive floral and citrusy scents, making it one of the most used natural substances in natural perfumes.


It’s not only the scents that make neroli a favorite in perfumery historically but also the physical and mental health benefits of neroli essential oil beyond its evocative fragrances. Here we will explore more about neroli perfumes along with their properties, distillation, and history. So let’s get started.


Neroli perfume: Properties


Along with its evocative nature, neroli essential oil possesses many subtle medicinal properties that may include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, antimicrobial, rejuvenating, and soothing among others, making it an ideal agent for aromatherapy with the ability to promote psychological wellbeing through alleviating anxiety and stress.


The natural scent of neroli can instill an earnest feeling of calmness, relaxation, and well-being on a more soulful level. In certain cultures, such as Chinese for example, it is believed that the scent of neroli has the capacity to enhance feelings of love and tranquility.For this reason, the uses of neroli perfumes have been found deeply associated with romance and perhaps this is the reason, as well as for the white color of its flowers, why neroli is symbolically used in weddings as a sign of purity, fertility, and moral virtue in traditional cultures.


Apart from diverse mental and psychological benefits, neroli has surprising physical benefits as well. The antioxidant effects of neroli can help protect the human body and brain from damages caused by free radicals and other environmental stressors such as air pollution and sun rays, which is why it is widely used as a profound anti-aging ingredient to help reduce the appearance of aging such as fine lines and wrinkles on the skin.


Neroli essential oil can help reduce inflammation with its tremendous anti-inflammatory properties and may help with easing various inflammatory symptoms such as pain and sore muscles. As a potent natural stress reliever, aromatherapy clinicians widely recommend neroli oil to reduce migraines or headaches as well as for clearing sinuses in people who have a cold.


Neroli perfume: Distillation


In late April to early May, the orange flowers are harvested and gathered for extraction, usually by handpicking from the bitter orange tree, botanically known as Citrus aurantium bigaradia or amara. The essential oil of neroli used in perfumery is usually obtained through steam distillation or hydro distillation from the flowers of the trees. Though sometimes the oil is extracted through the method of solvent extraction or enfleurage.

4月下旬から5月上旬にかけて、オレンジフラワーは通常は学名Citrus aurantium bigaradia or amaraとして知られているビターオレンジの木から手摘みで収穫され、抽出のために集 られます。香水に使用されるネロリ精油は、通常、木の花から水蒸気蒸留法または水蒸留法で得られます。しかし、溶剤抽出やアンフルラージュという方法で抽出されることもあります。

Enfleurage is a process in which odorless fats are used to capture the fragrant compounds naturally exuded by the orange flowers. The process of enfleurage can be both “hot enfleurage” as well as “cold enfleurage”. Today, the method of enfleurage is rarely used to produce neroli essential oil because of the high costs.


The production of neroli perfume oil is very limited and its costs are higher than many other perfume ingredients. Neroli oil is mainly produced in Morocco and Tunisia, supplying more than 90% of worldwide demand, making them leading producers of neroli worldwide.


Neroli perfume: A brief history


Neroli essential oil has long been used throughout history since the ancient civilization of Egypt when Ancient Egyptians used it for spiritual, wellbeing, and health purposes. The bitter orange tree is assumed to have originated on the foot of the Himalayas and first introduced to Europe by Genoese travelers.


In the 10th century, the bitter orange tree arrived in Al-Andalus by the Arabs and it was set permanently in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the centuries, eventually, it became the emblematic tree of Andalusia, more specifically of Seville, which is why it is otherwise known as the Seville orange tree.


But it was the 17th century when neroli gained significant fame as a fashionable perfume. The orange blossom received its name “neroli” from the Italian town of “Nerola” in honor of its Princess Anne Maria de la Tremoille who was famous for her nickname “Princess of La Nerola”.


This Italian Princess fell in love with bitter orange flowers and became obsessed with their freshness. She was the first person who made neroli essential oil through the distillation of orange flowers and soon it was developed as her favorite signature scent. With this precious essence of neroli, she would perfume everything around her surroundings including her gloves, bathwater, clothes, and palace, and her high influence made neroli a fashionable perfume in the world.


Final words


Neroli perfume represents a surprising harmony of citrus and floral with unique hints of spices and honey although delicate, distinctive, and utterly refreshing.Neroli is one of the most widely used ingredients in natural perfumery.It tells a unique story, not only about each person who wears it but also about the long history of perfume. The neroli essential oil is widely used in aromatherapy for its prevalent ability to enhance mental as well as physical wellbeing. It may help relieve stress and anxiety and promote relaxation physically as well as mentally. It can also evoke deep feelings of love and romance which is why it is traditionally used in certain cultures at weddings to symbolize purity, virginity, and moral virtue.


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November 24, 2022


CaFleureBon: Roses in Perfumery + The Name of The Rose Draw


Most people complain that roses have thorns, I am only grateful that thorns have roses. Alphonse Karr


Classic, elegant, evocative, and richly floral – it’s nearly impossible to describe the scent of a rose fresh from the garden and just as difficult to capture that scent. They are representative of love, of passion and of elegance.

クラシックで、エレガントで、喚起的で、豊かにフローラル - 庭から新鮮なバラの香りを説明することはほとんど不可能であり、その香りを捉えることは同じくらい困難です。 バラは愛、情熱、優雅さの代表です。

Roses are an ancient flower, perhaps as much as 35 million years old and including up to 150 species mostly from the northern hemisphere. They have been cultivated for perhaps 5000 years, beginning in China,(Confucious included roses in his writing in 500 BC) and have been used as expressions of love, for enjoyment, for medicinal purposes, for confetti, and for decoration. The world’s oldest rose that is growing today is said to be a dog rose in Hanover, Germany growing up the side of a cathedral and dating from the 9th century.
The largest rose is perhaps a Lady Banksia in Tombstone, Arizona that covers 8,000 square feet, produces hundreds of small white flowers, and came from Scotland in 1885. The Musk Rose (Rosa moschata) is an early, single bloomed species that may have been an ancestor to many of our modern roses. The French or Apothecary rose (Rosa gallica) once bloomed wild through Europe and Asia and can still be found there. The damask rose (Rosa damascena) is one of the earliest roses, descended from Rosa gallica with perhaps some musk rose and Apothecary rose in the background.White roses (Rosa alba) were famous during the War of the Roses and descended from early mixture of the older dog, damask and gallica roses. Rosa centifolia or Rose de Mai is the cabbage rose with many petals.

バラは古くからある花で、おそらく3500万年前のもので、北半球を中心に150種ほどあると言われている。 中国(紀元前500年、孔子の著書にバラが登場)から5000年ほど前から栽培され、愛情表現、観賞、薬用、フラワーシャワー、装飾などに使われてきたという。現在生育している世界最古のバラは、ドイツ・ハノーバーの大聖堂の脇に生えているイヌバラ(Rosa canina)で、9世紀のものと言われている最も大きなバラは、アリゾナ州トゥームストーンにあるレディバンクシア(モッコウバラ)で、1885年にスコットランドから持ち込まれ、8000平方フィートの面積に数百の小さな白い花を咲かせたものであろう。ムスクローズ(Rosa moschata)は、早咲きの一重咲きで、多くのモダンローズの祖先であると思われる。フレンチローズまたは薬用バラ(Rosa gallica)は、かつてヨーロッパやアジアに自生していたバラで、現在でも見ることができます。ダマスクローズ(Rosa damascena)は、最も古いバラの一つです。ムスクローズおよび薬用ローズを背景に、ロサ・ガリカの子孫にあたります。ホワイトローズ(Rosa alba)は、バラ戦争で有名で、古いのバラ、ダマスクローズ、ガリカローズの初期の混合種の子孫である。 ロサ・ケンティフォリアまたはローズドメイは、花弁の多いキャベジローズの一種。

イヌバラ (Rosa canina) はバラの一種。学名からロサ・カニーナとも呼ばれる。ヨーロッパ・北アフリカ・西アジアに自生する。
モッコウバラ(木香茨、木香薔薇、学名:Rosa banksiae)は、中国原産のバラ。種小名は植物学者ジョゼフ・バンクスの夫人にちなむ
Rosa gallica :Apothecary rose薬用バラ

The Chinese rose is Rosa chinensis and gave rise to the Tea rose, providing important new characteristic to the European roses – repeat blooming and hardy evergreen foliage. Nearly all modern roses derive from these China roses.The scent of roses may be the heart of a perfume created to exhibit its rich lushness but rose extracts are also used as a modifier for roundness or smoothness. Main rose species used in essential oil production include damask rose, Apothecary’s or French rose, Rose de mai, white rose, China, and Musk rose. In producing the essential oil or otto, much care is taken to maintain the fullness of the scent. Flowers are picked early in the morning from pre-dawn until about 10:30 am and flowers that are fresh and in full bloom are chosen. The flowers are taken to the distillery every morning and are chilled, then distilled as soon as possible. One kg rose oil is obtained from 3000 to 4000 kg of damask rose petals, which are the highest yielding flowers. Solvent extraction obtains about 10 times as much fragrant material making the absolute or concrete, both products of solvent extraction, less expensive than the distilled otto or rose oil. The word rose attar can mean two different things, either the essential oil of rose or the process of distilling roses into sandalwood. Attar of rose has a gorgeous scent with the floral, honey and buttery richness of roses and sandalwood intimately combined.

中国のバラはRosa chinensis(ロサ・キネンシス)で、ティーローズを生み出し、繰り返し咲き、常緑で丈夫な葉というヨーロッパローズに新しい重要な特徴を与えた。 モダンローズのほとんどは、このチャイニーズローズに由来している。バラの香りは、その豊かさを表現するために作られた香水の中心であるかもしれませんが、バラのエキスは丸みや滑らかさを表現するための調整剤としても使用されています。精油に使われる主なバラの種類は、ダマスクローズ、アポセカリーローズ(薬用バラ)または(フレンチローズ)、ローズドメイ、ホワイトローズ、チャイナローズ、ムスクローズなどです。精油(オットー)の製造では、香りのふくよかさを保つために多くの注意が払われる。花は夜明け前から10時半頃までの早朝に摘み取られ、新鮮で満開の花が選ばれる。 花は毎朝蒸留所に運ばれ、冷やされた後、できるだけ早く蒸留される。最も収穫量の多いダマスクローズの花びら3000〜4000kgから、1kgのローズオイルが得られる。溶剤抽出の場合、約10倍の香気成分が得られるので、溶剤抽出のアブソリュートやコンクリートは、蒸留したオットーやローズオイルよりも安価に入手できる。ローズアッターという言葉には、バラの精油という意味と、蒸留したローズをサンダルウッドに混ぜる工程という意味が2つある。 ローズアッターは、バラのフローラルな香り、ハチミツやバターのようなリッチな香り、サンダルウッドが密接に結びついた華やかな香りを持つ。

Rosa chinensis ロサ・キネンシス
Rose de mai ローズドメイ:Rosa centifoliaロサケンティフォリア
Concretes コンクリート

In perfumery there are two popular and readily available, though quite expensive, types of roses used. Rosa centifolia or Rose de Mai is usually found as an absolute (alcohol wash of a solvent-extract) with a rich sweet, true and deep rose scent and an odor that is described as tenacious. There are very slight hints of spice and honey. It is generally cultivated in Morocco, France and other European and Asian countries and is available in limited quantities as an essential oil. Rosa damascena is the familiar rose from Bulgaria and Turkey that is also used to produce the ‘otto’ or essential oil of rose. It is the primary rose used for production of essential oil, obtained from distillation. Turkey has been producing ‘Turkish Rose Oil’ for over 120 years. The otto is generally a pale yellow or light green liquid with a tendency to form crystals at lower temperatures. It has a warm, very deep and very rich fragrance, slightly spicy and honeylike. It is a true representation of a red rose. The absolute from this rose is described as warm, rich, spicy –floral and also possessing hints of honey and is usually orange or orange-red in color. When diluted it can be quite diffusive and may exhibit its odor best at low dilutions.

香水で使われるバラは、高価だが入手しやすい人気の高い2種類である。ロサケンティフォリアまたはローズドメイ は、通常、 アブソリュート(溶剤抽出物のアルコール洗浄) として豊かな甘い、本当の奥深いバラの香りと粘りとして記述されているごくわずかにスパイスとハチミツの香りがする。 モロッコ、フランスなどヨーロッパ、アジアで一般的に栽培されており、精油として限られた量しか入手できません。 ダマスクローズは、ブルガリアやトルコでおなじみのバラで、「オットー」やローズの精油の生産にも使用されています。蒸留して得られる精油生産に使われる主要なバラです。トルコでは120年以上前から「トルコローズオイル」を生産しています。オットーは一般的に淡い黄色または淡い緑色の液体で、低温で結晶を形成する傾向があります。 温かみがあり、非常に深みのある、わずかにスパイシーでハチミツのような香りがします。まさに赤いバラを表現しています。このバラのアブソリュートは、暖かく、豊かで、スパイシーな花のような、またハニーのヒントを持つと表現され、通常オレンジまたはオレンジレッド色をしています。 希釈するとかなり拡散し、低い希釈率でその香りを最もよく発揮することができます。

The concretes (solvent extract) of damascena and centifolia are similar to the absolutes but may be slightly more true to the rose scent. Musk rose (Rosa moschata) has an earthy, musky rose scent and is difficult to find. The rare Taif roses grow in Saudi Arabia and are likely a variety of damask rose. They are delicately pink and highly perfumed. Both rose oil and rose water are made from these roses and the yield is much lower than other damask roses.
Rose oils and absolutes are often extended or adulterated with other rose-smelling essential oils and extracts including rose geranium, an herb and palmarosa which is a grass. Geranium, especially the bourbon or rose variety, provides a lovely, rosy scent that is also slightly herbal. Palmarosa or palma rosa is commonly used in less expensive applications including soap making or skin product

ダマスクローズとケンチフォリアのコンクリート(溶剤抽出物)はアブソリュートに似ているが、バラの香りにやや忠実なのかもしれない。 ムスクローズ(Rosa moschata)は土っぽい麝香のようなバラの香りで、入手が困難である。サウジアラビアでは珍しいタイフのバラが栽培されており、ダマスクローズの一種と思われる。 繊細なピンク色で、香りが強い。 ローズオイルもローズウォーターもこのバラから作られるが、他のダマスクローズと比べると収量はかなり少ない。ローズオイルやアブソリュートは、ハーブのローズゼラニウムや草のパルマローザなど、他のバラの香りの精油やエキスで拡張したり不純物を入れたりすることが多い。 ゼラニウム、特にバーボンまたはローズ品種は、美しい、バラ色の香りを提供し、またわずかにハーブ調です。 パルマローザは、石鹸やスキンケア製品など、あまり高価でない用途によく使われます。

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November 21, 2022




Imbued with an aura of mystery since antiquity, perfume continues to mesmerize the senses. This is why, over the centuries, it has often been associated in one way or another with some form of sorcery. Perfume and witchcraft are both invisible, yet their effect on our emotions is powerful. We cannot escape a smell, just as we cannot escape a spell.


Perfume: witchcraft that repels evil


Fragrances to fight evil


With witchcraft, a bad spell can be undone by a counter-spell. In the same way, for centuries, it was believed that a scented breastplate could protect against certain spells. You can still find anti-spell scents on the Internet today! Whether you believe it or not, the idea is interesting And it says a lot about the power of perfume on humans.


counterspell 対抗呪文

In fact, wearing perfume can be like putting on armour that protects us from the outside world. Many customers have shared this vision of perfume with us! Their perfume is their armour, without which they feel naked. And wearing perfume also means protecting yourself from external aggressions. So our perfume creates a halo or a kind of bubble around us, in which we feel comfortable. When the surrounding odours are unpleasant, smelling our perfume soothes us.


Halo 後光

It’s therefore not surprising that the idea of perfume as a bulwark against evil spells has developed! Or the belief that certain smells can ward off evil. The Devil, who lives in a putrid and stinking place (according to these famous sources), would be disturbed by scents that smell good.


Perfumes to invoke good


One of the very first uses of perfume in history was as a messenger of the divine. In fact, the first perfumers were none other than priests. And the “perfumes” they prepared were intended to create channels of communication with the Beyond. For the Egyptians, these were ointments and the embalming process. By embalming the bodies (making them into mummies), they were allowed to become Gods. They thus became “Perfumed”.


In the Greco-Roman civilization, perfumes were truly the privileged means of communication with the Gods. The smoke of the incense rose towards them and transmitted the prayers and requests of humans to them. Burning incense or other preparations was, therefore, a way of paying homage to and invoking them. Food was an offering to satisfy their hunger, wine quenched their thirst, and perfumes spoke to their spirits.


Perfumes to cure disease, witchcraft that protects


Throughout history, perfume has been used to heal and protect from disease. In the Middle Ages, it was believed that the pores of the skin made it permeable to bacteria and diseases of all kinds, which allowed them to enter the body directly. Perfume was, therefore, able to act on both these levels. On the other hand, it was believed that bad smells carried diseases, and that by wearing perfume, you could protect yourself from evil.


For example, to protect oneself against the dangers of the plague, it was necessary to spend a little time in the toilet in the morning. First, you had to rub vinegars and ointments on your body. Then you had to ingest, drink and chew various fragrant flowers and herbs (Angelica was a great champion in the fight against evil). And you ended by stuffing your nose with scented substances to be smelled as soon as the surrounding air became too foul.


This explains why rosemary was widely used, especially during the Renaissance. Known for its therapeutic properties, it was used for both drinkable and fragrant solutions (the very famous Water of the Queen of Hungary, for example!).


Perfume and witchcraft:a dangerous association


Perfume is, therefore, believed to have magical properties that protect against disease and spells. Conversely, there is also the idea in the collective imagination, especially since the Middle Ages, that perfumes can be used to cast evil spells.


collective imagination 集団的想像力

Incidentally, perfumes are preparations that are a bit like magic potions. They are made by mixing different ingredients together according to an elaborate and precise formula. A real witch’s work!


Women’s perfumes: witches'perfumes


A bit like love potions, perfumes are dangerous weapons that bewitch and make you lose your mind. For centuries, it was thought that women who used to wear perfume were some kind of witches. They were considered to be evil temptresses who sought to pervert men and lead them astray.


love potion 媚薬
temptress 誘惑する女

Moreover, during the Middle Ages and even the Renaissance, there was a strong scientific opinion that women were diabolical beings. (well, of course!). And older women! in particular! Their smell was reputed to be nauseating, and a woman who wore perfume was therefore very suspicious. She was probably trying to hide her body odor!


The perfume that bewitches


Smel:that very special sense


The sense of smell is our most emotional and primitive sense. That is to say, when we smell, the information arrives directly in a region of the brain dedicated to emotions, without passing through the area. where we analyze it. All the other senses perceive stimuli that are first analyzed by the brain, and then directed to the emotional region. But not the sense of smell…


This also explains the strength of olfactory memories. The smell of our grandmother’s kitchen, our mother’s perfume, freshly cut grass in springtime, all evoke happy memories. Smelling these scents is therefore comforting and very pleasurable, like Proust’s famous madeleine.


This is why perfumes are powerful weapons because they allow us to interact with this very special sense. They can reach directly into the emotional sphere,and have an effect on our sensibilities and behaviors!


Perfume as a weapon of seduction and witchcraft


This also explains why, even today, perfume is still shrouded in mystery. And why it is believed to have powers of seduction! There is the idea that certain perfumes make it seduction easier. A bit like a spell that is impossible to resist.


Perfume can indeed help to awaken desire, and then to nourish that feeling. We remember the smell of the other person after they leave, and we think of them when we smell certain scents that remind us of theirs.


In fact, many perfumes have names related to the vocabulary of love, witchcraft, and seduction. All these perfumes are supposed to make anyone fall under your spell.


The ingredients of enchantment


The most “seductive” olfactory family is the Orientals. Its very name evokes the mystery of the Orient, with all its clich?s. Frankincense, myrrh, amber, vanilla … these warm and sensual notes combine with white animal flowers or leathery roses to produce scandalous elixirs.


But being a fan of floral or woody scents won’t stop you from being a witch, or a sorcerer! So have fun with our 64 ingredients to find your own magic formula.


But most importantly, to cast a spell, you need to be a powerful witch,. And that starts with feeling good in your own skin. So the first thing to look for with your perfume is the chemistry you create by perfuming your skin. And what happens next is that it has to bewitch you!


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November 16, 2022




Love for perfumes and spirituality go together, at least in the tradition of Islam.


Very much unlike the idea of Serge Lutens for whom perfume is an expression of decadence and sensuality, the prophetic traditions of the three monotheistic religions, in their ritual as well as in their mystics, have given to us many clues about the direct relation that exists between the spiritual reality of men and their olfactory capacity.


Starting with the Hebrew mysticism, because it springs from the prophet Abraham who is not only the spiritual but also the biological forefather of Moses, Jesus and Mohammad, the sense of smell is described as the only one giving pleasure to the soul, while all other senses give pleasure to the body.


The following traditions explain my point, which is that the best of mankind, the founders of faiths, had a sense of smell that allowed them to sense what other people could not.


The following examples come directly from the Muslim tradition, particularly from the Quran.


Jesus used to surprise people when he was a child, describing to them what they had eaten in their houses, and the evident explanation is that he could smell it, as this often happens to me and you, when people have eaten fried foods, for example.


Nevertheless, this ability of Jesus was so stunning to people because he would tell them everything they had eaten, including the foods that none could have smelled. This was quite disturbing for the co-nationals of Jesus because the rules regulating the foods are extremely strict in Hebraism and many were not following them strictly. Jesus was not just telling them what they had eaten but what forbidden foods they had eaten.


Solomon had been taught the language of all living creatures. Once he passed with his army by a very big ant community. Feeling the footsteps of his legions, the ants became alarmed and called each other “get back under earth otherwise Solomon’s army will smash you under their feet”. Then Solomon, hearing this, laughed (Quran).


How could Solomon hear their voices? Because he could smell their language. Insects communicate essentially through a chemical language, they produce pheromones, and among them are alarm pheromones. With this device, a tiny insect of 2 mm can send his message to others over long distances. This is what the antennas of insects are: noses for chemical (aromatic) messages. Solomon’s nose was so sensitive that he could smell these pheromones with which insects communicate,and knew their meaning. He could not speak to the ants but knew their language.


Jacob had become blind from the disappearance of his beloved son Joseph. After many years the whole bunch of his 12 brothers was forced by famine to get out of the desert to find wheat in Egypt.Joseph had become the vizier of Pharaoh and was his minister of agriculture. They did not recognize him but he did recognize them. At last, he revealed himself to them on their third travel to Egypt and said to them: go back to our father and throw this shirt of mine onto his face. He will recover his sight. So when the caravan approached Jacob’s tent he said: “I can smell the smell of Joseph”. In fact, the sense of smell of blind people becomes particularly acute, but not to this point. Jacob was a prophet and like Jesus or Solomon, he could smell what other people cannot smell.

ヤコブは最愛の息子ヨセフの失踪により、目が見えなくなっていた。何年もたってから,12人の兄弟たちは飢饉によって,エジプトで小麦を見つけるために砂漠から出て行くことを余儀なくされました。ヨセフはファラオの宰相となり、農相を務めていた。彼らはヨセフを認めませんでしたが、ヨセフは彼らを認めました。そして、3回目のエジプト旅行のとき、ついにヨセフはその姿を現し、彼らに言った。彼は視力を回復するだろう」。そこで、キャラバンがヤコブの天幕に近づくと、彼は言った。"ヨセフの匂いがする "と。実際、盲人の嗅覚は特に鋭くなるのだが、ここまではいかない。ヤコブは預言者であり、イエスやソロモンのように、他の人が嗅ぎ分けられない匂いを嗅ぎ分けることができるのである。

His sons said, “this is your old folly about Joseph that overtakes you again”. But there came the sons who had been to Joseph, and when they threw the shirt onto his face his blindness was cured. This is how the nose can cure other organs of our body. It is a great sorrow that had made him blind. The nose can bring powerful emotions and the smell of Joseph procured him joy so great that it cured the blindness caused by the sorrow of his loss.


The prophet Muhammad who had been orphaned at the age of six, whose only children were daughters, whose first convert was a woman, said that his most beloved person was his wife and who replied once “the best among you is the one kinder to his family”, said: “Three things of this world were made dear to my heart: prayer, perfume, and feminine gender”.

6歳で孤児となり、唯一の子供が娘で、最初の改宗者が女性であった預言者ムハンマドは、彼の最も愛する人は彼の妻であり、かつて「あなたがたの中で最高の者は彼の家族に優しい者である」と答えたと述べています:この世の3つのものがわたしの心に愛された:祈り,香水, そして女性らしさ

The Muslims were thus enjoined to use perfume for the ritual Friday prayer, this is why the art of perfumes, born in India was developed by the Arabs in the same way as they assimilated and developed the science of medicine from the Greeks.


But as we know well with aromatherapy, between perfume and medicine there is not really a frontier and the forgotten figure of the perfumer-healer is rising again from the art of natural perfumery. The Natural perfumer of today does not have the spiritual dimension that often surrounded the antique perfumer, but he has a psycho-therapeutic role of healer of the minds with his perfumes because we can say that a scent that makes you feel good when you are depressed has actually cured you.






ソロモン(ヘブライ語: ????、??l?m?h Shlomo、 ギリシア語: Σολομ?ν、 ラテン語: Salomon、 アラビア語: ??????、Sulaym?n、 トルコ語: S?leyman、 紀元前1011年頃 - 紀元前931年頃)は、旧約聖書の『列王記』に登場する古代イスラエル(イスラエル王国)の第3代の王[1](在位紀元前971年 - 紀元前931年頃)。父はダビデ。母はバト・シェバ。エジプトに臣下の礼をとり、ファラオの娘を降嫁されることで安全保障を確立し、古代イスラエルの最盛期を築いたとされる一方、堕落した王ともされる。


[一] イスラエル民族の始祖。イサクとリベカの間に生まれた双生児の一人でエサウの弟。兄から食物と引換えに長子権を得、のち神的体験によりイスラエルと改名。彼を太祖として一二人の子がイスラエル十二部族を構成した。
[二] イエスの兄弟。イエスの死後信仰にはいり、ペテロやパウロとともに教会の最初の中心人物の一人となった。「ヤコブの手紙(ヤコブ書)」の筆者ともいわれる。
[三] 十二使徒の一人。ゼベダイの子。もと漁夫で、使徒ヨハネの兄。イエスの最初の弟子の一人となり、殉教。大ヤコブともいわれる。
[四] 十二使徒の一人。アルパヨの子。エルサレムの最初の司教となり、のち殉教。小ヤコブともいわれる。
出典 精選版 日本国語大辞典精選版 日本国語大辞典について 情報


ムハンマド(アラビア語: ?????[1]、Mu?ammad[2], 570年頃 - 632年6月8日)は、アラブの宗教的、社会的、政治的指導者であり、イスラム教の預言者である[3]。イスラム教の教義によると、彼は預言者であり、アダム、アブラハム、モーセ、イエス、その他の預言者の一神教の教えを説き、確認するために遣わされた[3][4][5][6]。

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November 01, 2022


Scent and the Spirit - Sufism’s Fragrance of Love


If Sufism were to be likened to a perfume, its top notes would be peace, freedom, compassion, humility, unity; heart notes of purity, universal equality, devotion, sincerity and wisdom; and a sublime base note of unconditional love! Known to be the core essence of all faiths, Sufism, emerges from the essence of Islamic spiritual teaching. It follows the path of all-encompassing love and its core principles, including compassion and brotherhood. Legendary Sufis like Ibn el Arabi of Andalusia even propounded the theory of ‘Wahdat al Wujood’ (unity of mankind) and ‘Wahdat ad Deen’ (unity of all faiths) emphasizing that these principles lay at their very core, uniting them spiritually.

スーフィズムを香水にたとえるなら、そのトップノートは平和、自由、慈悲、謙虚、統一、ハートノートは純粋、普遍的平等、献身、誠意、知恵、そして崇高なベースノートは無条件の愛となることでしょう あらゆる信仰の中核をなすものとして知られるスーフィズムは、イスラムの霊的な教えの本質から生まれました。スーフィズムは、イスラムの精神的な教えの本質から生まれたもので、すべてを包み込む愛の道と、慈悲や兄弟愛といったその中核的な原則に従っています。アンダルシアのイブン・エル・アラビーのような伝説的なスーフィズムは、「Wahdat al Wujood」(人類の統一)と「Wahdat ad Deen」(すべての信仰の統一)の理論を提唱し、これらの原則がまさに核となって彼らを霊的に統合していると強調しているほどです。

"Fragrance plays a role in not only beautifying Sufi practice but also by providing spiritual inspiration through its myriad avatars." - Krishnaraj Iyengar

「香りは、スーフィーの修行を美しくするだけでなく、その無数の姿を通して、霊的なインスピレーションを与える役割を担っている。- クリシュナラジ・アイエンガー

Fragrance A Sign of God


Since fragrance has a direct relation with the spirit, Sufis consider it to be an expression of spirituality and spiritual inspiration. Sufi mystics consider the universe’s bounties as manifestations of divine beauty and signs of the universal creator, among whose most sublime creations is fragrance.
Known to exhilarate and spiritually elevate mankind since ages, the Sufis are no exception to loving fragrance which has been unanimously viewed by them in many enlightening and intriguing ways.


Islamic Roots


Beginning with Islam, non-alcoholic perfume concentrates or ‘attar’ have been a part of ‘Sunnah’ or prophetic tradition including the practice of burning agarwood (oud) chips in the form of ‘bakhoor’ or incense on ornate Arabic incense burners called ‘Mabkharah.’ Since alcohol is ‘haram’ (forbidden) in Islam, attars have been a part of all Islamic communities and even Sufi orders.


Mabkharah マブカラ(香炉)
Bakhoor  バフール(アラブのお香)
Sunnah:スンナ(アラビア語: Sunnah)は、字義通りには「踏み慣らされた道=慣行」。
主にイスラームにおける預言者ムハンマドの言行・範例( as-Sunnatu’n-Nabaw?yah:預言者のスンナ)を指すウィキペディアより

Musk–The Scent of Love


One of the loftiest Sufis and Persian mystic poets of all times was Jalaluddin Rumi. Also known as ‘Mevlana’ to the Turks, ‘Molana’ to Persians, he existed in ‘Aalam-e-Lahoot’ (realm of divinity), the highest spiritual state in which love was central to his teachings. “Love,” he said, “bore the fragrance of musk!” He wrote:

ペルシャの神秘詩人、ジャラールディン・ルーミーは、最も高尚なスーフィーの一人です。トルコ人には「メヴラーナ」、ペルシャ人には「モラナ」とも呼ばれる彼は、「アーラム・エ・ラフート」(神性の領域)に存在し、愛が彼の教えの中心をなしている最高の霊的状態でした。「愛は麝香の香りを放つ "と彼は言っています。と書いている。

Scent The Spirit’s Essence


Scent also signifies spiritual essence, spiritual connection or a medium of expressing or conveying the bliss of divine love and unison. Many Sufis in Persia, the Arab world and India have spoken about fragrance in various manners, even allegorically.While Amir Khusro the towering Indian Sufi poet talks about recognizing ‘the scent’ of his teacher Nizamuddin Peer, Rumi writes “I have fragranced my mind with the scent of Shamsuddin my master. Oud, amber and musk I do not need.”


Rumi in his greatest work , the ‘Masnavi’, also talks of the Qur’anic story about how the visually impaired Prophet Jacob, while in Egypt, could feel the scent of his son Joseph (Yusuf) from miles away as his caravan left Canaan. When Joseph cast his robe on his father’s face, he began to see again. Rumi says “buye pirhaan e yusuf kon sanad. Zaan ke buyesh chashm roshan mikonad” (“Make the scent of Joseph’s robe your rope. Hold on to it, for it gives sight to the eyes”). Here, Rumi talks about sensing the ‘scent’ of God’s presence so our spiritual eyes maybe opened.

ルーミーは、彼の最も偉大な作品である「マスナヴィー」の中で、エジプトにいた視覚障害の預言者ヤコブが、彼のキャラバンがカナンを出発するとき、数マイル先から息子ヨセフ(ユスフ)の匂いを感じられたというクルアーンの物語についても語っている。ヨセフが自分の衣を父の顔にかけると、父は再び目が見えるようになった。ルミは言う、「buye pirhaan e yusuf kon sanad. ヨセフの衣の匂いをあなたの縄にしなさい。それは目に見えるから」。) ルーミーはここで、神の存在の「香り」を感じ取ることで、私たちの霊的な目が開かれるかもしれないと語っているのです。

Eau De Dervish


Fragrance finds significance in various Sufi practices. “The ‘Whirling Dervishes’ of Rumi’s ‘Mevlevi’ Turkish Sufi tradition burn a musky-amber and oud incense (t?ts?) and even wear a unique daffodil and rose fragrance during the legendary ‘Sema’ ceremony. The scent of Narcissus signifies God’s love,” says Handan Is??k, a passionate lover of Sufism from Konya, Turkey, where stands Rumi’s mausoleum, a place of pilgrimage for her kind.


Dervishes:ダルウィーシュ 《イスラム教の托鉢(たくはつ)僧; 体を激しく回転させる踊りや祈祷(きとう)で法悦状態に入る》.

In parts of the Arab world where ‘dhikr’ (remembrance of God) ceremonies are performed at Sufi gatherings like ‘Hadrah’, bakhoor is burnt to not only purify the atmosphere, but to create the spiritual mood. Attars of different types are worn by the ‘mureeds’ or Sufi disciples and even the ‘Sheikh’ or the master who presides over the ceremony.


ハドラ(Ha?ra、????) とはスーフィズム教団が行う集団儀式

Indian Mystique


In India, there is the tradition of smearing attar on ‘chaadar’ (sacred cloth sheets) which cover the graves of Sufi saints at mausoleums. Perfumer Praful Gundhi explains that while his two classic attars ‘Majmua,’ a unique rose and kewda (pandanus) blend, and ‘Firdows,’ a warm, fresh green aromatic attar are generally preferred for ‘Dargah’ or Sufi mausoleums, some also use black musk, rose and jasmine.
Incense sticks, or ‘agarbatti’ also finds a place in Indian Sufism. “Devotees often buy my musk rose incense and have the dargah priest pray over it. They feel the pure spiritual energy after they light it thereafter,” he explains.


学名:Pandanus odoratissimus Syn. P. tectorius
和名:アダン 科名:タコノキ科タコノキ属
原産地:インド 抽出部位:花 抽出方法:溶剤

学名:Rosa moschata 科名:バラ科 バラ属 原産地:インド
抽出部位:花 抽出方法:水蒸気蒸留

agarbatti 線香

‘Loban,’ a resin, is also burnt with charcoal on special burners. The individual, with head covered, walks around the mausoleum with the burner so the smoke spreads evenly throughout, dispelling all negative energy and inspiring devotion.


Fragrance plays a role in not only beautifying Sufi practice but also by providing spiritual inspiration through its myriad avatars. Like music, good food and natural beauty, fragrance can be called “ni’amah” Arabic for “divine grace,” that liberates man from the ego’s trappings.


Sufim’s insight into fragrance makes us feel that there are after all, a few drops of its mystical wisdom in each great fragrance of the world in the form of those secret notes that become the soul’s elixir! The liberating ‘aha’ that fragrances of various kinds cause their lovers and wearers to experience can be called ‘split-second Sufism!’ It is when the soul suddenly feels the deep connect with its source for those few moments of nosing the opening notes, or even throughout the course of the fragrance’s unfolding from the top to the heart to the base, like a mystic ceremony of divine love!


soul’s elixir 魂の霊薬


スーフィズム(英: Sufism)、タサウウフ(Taawwufアラビア語:)、イスラム神秘主義とは、イスラム教の神秘主義哲学である。アラビア語ではタサウウフと呼ばれるが、一般的に担い手であるスーフィー(アラビア語)に英語のイズムをつけたスーフィズム、またはイスラム神秘主義という呼称が使われている[1]。ただし、スーフィー達が「神秘」を特に掲げていたという訳ではない[1]。
9世紀以降に生じた、イスラム教の世俗化・形式化を批判する改革運動であり、修行によって自我を滅却し、忘我の恍惚の中での神との神秘的合一(ファナー ???? fan?')を究極的な目標とする、一種の内面化運動である[2]。




ジャラール・ウッディーン・ルーミー(ペルシア語: MawlnJal?l ad-Dn Muammad BalkheRm; トルコ語: Mevln Celaleddin-i Rumi、1207年9月30日 - 1273年12月17日)はペルシャ語文学史上最大の神秘主義詩人である。同時代のスーフィー・イブン・アル=アラビーと並ぶ、イスラーム神学、スーフィズムの重要な人物の一人と見なされている[1]。「沈黙」を意味する「ハムーシュ」を雅号とし[2]、ルーミーの父バハーウッディーンをはじめとする人々は、「識者」を意味する「ホダーヴァンデガール」と彼を呼んだ[3]。
ルーミーの思想の一つに、旋回舞踏によって「神の中への消滅」という死に似た状態に陥る神秘体験の実行が挙げられる[4]。ルーミーの没後、コンヤのルーミー廟を拠点とする彼の弟子たちによって、コマのように回って踊るサマーウ(セマ)という儀式で有名なメヴレヴィー教団が形成された。メヴレヴィー教団では同教団の始祖と仰がれている。主な著書はペルシャ語の詩集『精神的マスナヴィー』(Masnav?-ye Ma'nav)。

What is bakhoor (and how to use bakhoor)?

Bakhoor are wood chips that have been soaked in perfume oil and are mixed with other (natural) ingredients, such as natural resin, sandlewood and essentials oils. It comes in many different varieties, which means there’s a type of bakhoor for everyone. Bakhoor is especially popular in the Middle East.


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October 19, 2022





The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application

4. The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes Through the Olfactory Receptors Expressed in the Non-Olfactory System

4. 非嗅覚系に発現する嗅覚受容体を介した精油とテルペンの効果

It has been known from early in the 1990s that olfactory receptors are expressed in non-olfactory tissues, such as sperm cells [53,54,55], testes [55,56], heart [57], kidney [58], skin [59], and gut/intestine [60,61,62]. These olfactory receptors are not involved in sensing odors but are involved in chemical reactions, such as chemotaxis [54], adjusting blood pressure [58], and stimulating secretion of hormones [57] and enzymes [58]. This suggests the possibility that olfactory receptors can be involved when essential oils are topically applied and when they are ingested.

精子細胞 [53,54,55]、精巣 [55,56]、心臓 [57]、腎臓 [58]、皮膚 [59] 、腸 [60,61,62] などの非嗅覚組織で嗅覚受容体が発現していることが1990年代初頭から知られています。これらの嗅覚受容体は匂いの感知には関与せず、走化性[54]、血圧の調節[58]、ホルモン[57]や酵素[58]の分泌促進といった化学反応に関与している。このことは、精油が局所的に塗布されるときと、摂取されるときに嗅覚受容体が関与する可能性を示唆している。


精子細胞 [53,54,55]
53. Expression of members of the putative olfactory receptor gene family in mammalian germ cells.


54. Identification of a Testicular Odorant Receptor Mediating Human Sperm Chemotaxis. Science.


精巣 [55,56] 精子は卵胞液からの香り物質に向かって移動します。
55.Functional characterization of a mouse testicular olfactory receptor and its role in chemosensing and in regulatin of sperm motility.

精巣 [55,56]
55. マウス精巣嗅覚受容体の機能的特徴付けおよび化学感覚および精子運動性の制御におけるその役割。

56. Developmental expression patterns of testicular olfactory receptor genes during mouse spermatogenesis.


心臓 [57]
57. Expression of human olfactory receptor 10J5 in heart aorta, coronary artery, and endothelial cells and its functional role in angiogenesis.

腎臓 [58]、
58. Functional expression of the olfactory signaling system in the kidney.


皮膚 [59]
59. A Synthetic Sandalwood Odorant Induces Wound-Healing Processes in Human Keratinocytes via the Olfactory Receptor OR2AT4.


腸 [60,61,62]
60. Enterochromaffin Cells of the Human Gut: Sensors for Spices and Odorants. Gastroenterology


Conclusions: Our results show that odorants present in the luminal environment of the gut may stimulate serotonin release via olfactory receptors present in human enterochromaffin cells. Serotonin controls both gut motility and secretion and is implicated in pathologic conditions such as vomiting, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, olfactory receptors are potential novel targets for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and motility disorders.

結論 腸管内腔環境に存在する匂い物質が、ヒト腸クロム親和性細胞に存在する嗅覚受容体を介してセロトニン放出を刺激する可能性があることが示された。セロトニンは腸の運動と分泌を制御し、嘔吐、下痢、過敏性腸症候群などの病的状態に関与している。このように、嗅覚受容体は、消化管疾患や運動障害の治療のための新規ターゲットとなる可能性があります。

61. Expression of odorant receptor Olfr78 in enteroendocrine cells of the colon. Cell Tissue Res.


62.Activation of intestinal olfactory receptor stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in enteroendocrine cells and attenuates hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic mice.


Overproduction of Gastrointestinal 5-HT Promotes Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer Progression via Enhancing NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation


Role of Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptors in Intestinal Inflammation

腸の炎症におけるセロトニン 5-HT3 受容体の役割

Role of central vagal 5-HT3 receptors in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology



The Effects of Serotonin in Immune Cells


Activation of an Olfactory Receptor Inhibits Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells



一方、胃腸においても同様の染色像を示す細胞群が見られ、これらはそれぞれ腸クロム親和性細胞(英: Enterochromaffin Cells、EC細胞)及び腸クロム親和性細胞様細胞(英: Enterochromaffin-like Cells、ECL細胞)と呼ばれる。 EC細胞は胃腸におけるオータコイドであるセロトニンの産生に関与している。 またECL細胞は顆粒内にセロトニンは含有せずヒスタミンを貯蔵し、胃酸の分泌に関与している。


脳は、非常に複雑な神経ネットワークを構築し、私たちの生命活動を支えています。 一方、腸には独自の神経系があり、脳と互いに影響を及ぼしあうことがわかっています。 これを「脳腸相関」(のうちょうそうかん)と言います。

生命活動や心の動きを調節する際、さまざまな指令を伝えるのが神経伝達物質です。 脳と腸の両方で分泌される神経伝達物質に「セロトニン」があります。 「セロトニン」は、脳内では気分を安定させ、穏やかにする役割を担っているほか、睡眠にも関与しています。 また、腸では、腸を動かす指令を出す際に使われています。 生活習慣やストレスなどが影響して腸の働きが鈍り、便秘になった場合を考えてみましょう。

このとき、腸の神経系は、「セロトニン」を分泌し、腸が動くように刺激します。 腸内では、腸が反応するまで「セロトニン」を分泌し続けるため、便秘がひどくなると、腸内のセロトニンが過剰になります。 一方、脳では「セロトニン」が不足している状態になってしまうため、不安になったりイライラしたりしやすくなるようです。



オスマンサス(金木犀)Abs2ml のお求めは下記にて

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October 08, 2022


The Moon, The Wind and Positive and Negative Ions


How Air Ions Act On The Whole Person


When oxygen is absorbed via the lung alveolus, the ionized molecules are taken up like the normal oxygen molecules and pass into the blood corpuscles. The red blood corpuscle, whose hemoglobin is oxygenated by the air during respiration, receives also the ionized oxygen. The negative charge is carried throughout the body, whereas the positive charge may attack the blood platelets (thrombosis) which in sensitive patients releases the irritating hormone, serotonin.


Serotonin release produces dryness, burning and itching of the nose, nasal obstruction, headaches, dry, scratchy throat, difficulty in swallowing, dry lips, dizziness, difficulty in breathing, and itching of the eyes. Negative ions do not produce this unpleasant serotonin syndrome; they act directly on the respiratory enzyme, cytochrome oxidase, and promote cell respiration.

セロトニン放出は、鼻の乾燥、鼻がツーンとする感じおよび鼻のかゆみ、鼻づまり、頭痛、乾燥、喉のイガイガ、 嚥下困難、乾燥した唇、めまい、呼吸困難および目のかゆみを産生させます。マイナスイオンはこのような不快なセロトニン症候群を起こさず、呼吸酵素であるチトクロム酸化酵素に直接作用し、細胞の呼吸を促進します。

nasal obstruction 鼻づまり
scratchy throat 喉のイガイガ
difficulty in swallowing  嚥下困難
cytochrome oxidase シトクロム酸化酵素

All the tracheal changes attributed to positive air ions can be duplicated by the intravenous injection of serotonin. These effects can be reversed by treatment with negative air ions.


On the basis of these facts, it seems reasonable to postulate that positive air ions are 'serotonin releasers' and that a local accumulation of serotonin in the trachea is the immediate cause of the positive ion effect.


Negative air ions reverse positive ion effects by speeding up the rate at which serotonin oxydase is oxidized. Like other oxydase systems, monoamine oxydase is thought to consist of dehydrogenase linked to a respiratory chain reaction which may include cytochromes of flavones. Positive ionization of blood increased its serotonin release significantly.


oxydase systems 酸化酵素系
monoamine oxydase モノアミン酸化酵素

With every breath, air ions are carried into your respiratory tract to be transferred across the lungs into the bloodstream where they are taken up by the thrombocytes. If they enter as part of molecules of oxygen, the negative ions or positive ions are transported by your red blood cells. Positive ions cause thrombocytes to release the allergy producing hormone serotonin (5-HT). Serotonin acts as a bronchial constrictor and slows the clearing action of the cilia thus allowing the mucus to thicken. If you are one of those many hay fever sufferers or have some other respiratory problem you'll find that serotonin greatly aggravates your condition. There is less clearing of allergens and pollutants from your respiratory tract than from the lungs of others.

Thrombocytes 血小板。

It is this powerful and versatile neuro-hormone, serotonin, which is responsible for many of the unpleasant symptoms exhibited by persons breathing positively ionized, air. Some, particularly elderly people, may experience difficulty in breathing; asthmatics wheeze, rheumatic people feel their joints ache and in general, sleeplessness or insomnia, irritability and tension are increased. Hair and skin have an 'electric charge.' Migraine patients suffer with nausea and vomiting, and optical disturbances. Heart cases complain of palpitations, heart pain and oppression. Women before the age of menopause complain of hot flashes with sweats or chills. Hay fever patients get bad attacks of rhinitis with conjunctivitis, though this may not be the real hay fever season. Giddiness, tremor, and balance disturbances may appear, as well as diarrhea and a constant desire to urinate.


All this happens from stimulation of serotonin secretion by your being exposed to air containing
high densities of positive ions. Since negative ions are able to reverse the effects of positive ions by speeding up the rate at which serotonin is oxidized by stimulating the action of monoamine oxidase, it makes sense to stay in touch with quantities of negative ions whenever possible. As you will soon learn, this is done by employing negative ion generators and/or the application of negative hydrogen ions in liquid.


In general, exposure to negatively ionized air has been shown to increase oxygenation of the lungs, increased vital capacity, and enhanced celiac activity. All types of beneficial responses take place as a result of friendly negative ions.


With an increase of negative ions you will experience a normalization of the activities of the endocrine glands, which plays an important role in reducing the effects of stress.


A shift occurs in your body's indicators of the blood acid-base balance toward alkalinity. Your pH (potential of hydrogen) should be 7.5 on the 1 to 14 pH scale. Health resides there.


A sedating and pain relieving effect is experienced if you have undergone surgery or suffered burns.


Brain wave studies show an increase in brain amplitude with better thinking ability, a shift of alpha activity to the frontal area of the brain for better conceptual ability, and a higher synchronization of the right and left brain hemispheres for a more even balance of the personality.

Your body better undertakes the metabolism of vitamins and shows an increase in both static and dynamic work capacity and endurance. All this, in part, contributing to better overall mental and physical health.



Most of the body’s serotonin is circulating in the bloodstream, transported by blood platelets and is released upon activation.


Platelets are vital for regulating circulating serotonin levels in the plasma,


Plasma serotonin levels are associated with antidepressant response to SSRIs


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