August 19, 2022

友達の香り:体臭の類似性が社会的絆に貢献する可能性Science dailyより


Scent of a friend: Similarities in body odor may contribute to social bonding,an%20electronic%20nose%2C%20or%20eNose.

友達の香り 体臭の類似性が社会的絆に貢献する可能性

An electronic nose relying on body odor chemistry may predict whether we are likely to 'click' with a stranger


click with:意気投合する、

Date: June 27, 2022

Source: 情報源

Weizmann Institute of Science ワイツマン科学研究所、イスラエル



Researchers have found that people may have a tendency to form friendships with individuals who have a similar body odor. The researchers were even able to predict the quality of social interactions between complete strangers by first 'smelling' them with a device known as an electronic nose, or eNose. These findings suggest that the sense of smell may play a larger role in human social interactions than previously thought.




Weizmann Institute of Science researchers have found that people may have a tendency to form friendships with individuals who have a similar body odor. The researchers were even able to predict the quality of social interactions between complete strangers by first "smelling" them with a device known as an electronic nose, or eNose. These findings, published today in Science Advances, suggest that the sense of smell may play a larger role in human social interactions than previously thought.

ワイツマン科学研究所の研究者らは、人は体臭が似ている人と友好関係を結ぶ傾向がある可能性があることを発見した。研究者らは、電子鼻(eNose)と呼ばれる装置で最初に相手の匂いを嗅ぐことで、全く知らない人同士の社会的交流(相互作用)の質を予測することもできました。Science Advances誌に本日掲載されたこの研究結果は、嗅覚が人間の社会的交流において、これまで考えられていたよりも大きな役割を担っている可能性を示唆しています。

social interactions 社会的交流[相互作用]
Science Advances誌は米国科学振興協会(AAAS)発行

Anyone who has ever walked a dog knows that their canine can usually tell from a distance whether an approaching dog is friend or foe. When in doubt, upon encountering one another, the two dogs might carefully and explicitly sniff each other before deciding whether to plunge into a play session or an all-out war. This dominant role played by the sense of smell in social interactions has been extensively documented in all terrestrial mammals except humans. Is this because humans don't use their noses in social settings the way all other terrestrial mammals do? Or is this behavior covert, rather than overt, in humans?


terrestrial mammals  陸生哺乳類
social settings 社会的環境

Graduate student Inbal Ravreby, in Prof. Noam Sobel's laboratory in Weizmann's Brain Sciences Department, hypothesized that the latter is the case. She relied on two previous observations. First, several lines of evidence suggest that humans are constantly, although mostly subconsciously, sniffing themselves. Second, humans often subconsciously sniff other people. In addition, it's known that people tend to become friends with others who are similar to themselves in appearance, background, values and even in measures such as brain activity. Ravreby hypothesized that when subconsciously sniffing themselves and others, people may be making subliminal comparisons, and that they may then gravitate toward those whose smell is similar to their own.


subliminal サブリミナル

To test her hypothesis, Ravreby recruited pairs of click friends: same-sex nonromantic friends whose friendships had originally formed very rapidly.She hypothesized that because such friendships emerge prior to an in-depth acquaintance, they may be particularly influenced by physiological traits such as body odor. She then collected body odor samples from these click friends and conducted two sets of experiments to compare the samples with those collected from random pairs of individuals. In one set of experiments, she performed the comparison using the eNose, which assessed the chemical signatures of the odors. In the other, she asked volunteers to smell the two groups of body odor samples in order to assess similarities measured by human perception. In both types of experiments, click friends were found to smell significantly more like each other than did the individuals in the random pairs.

彼女の仮説を検証するために 、ラヴレビーは意気投合の友人のペアを募集しました:もとも急速に友人関係が形成された同性の非恋愛的な友人。彼女は、このような友人関係は、深く知り合う前に形成されるため、体臭などの生理的特徴に特に影響されるのではないかという仮説を立てた。そして、これらの意気投合友人から体臭サンプルを採取し、無作為のペアから採取したサンプルと比較する実験を2セット行った。一つの実験では、匂いの化学的な特徴を評価する電子鼻を使って比較を行いました。もう1つは、ボランティアに2つの体臭サンプルの匂いを嗅いでもらい、人間の知覚による類似性を評価するものです。どちらの実験でも、意気投合の友人は、無作為に選んだペアに含まれる個人よりも、有意に似た匂いがすることがわかった。

Next, Ravreby wanted to rule out the possibility that body odor similarity was a consequence of click friendships, rather than a contributing cause. For example, what if the friends had a similar smell because they ate the same types of food or shared other life experiences that influence body odor? To address this issue, Ravreby performed an additional set of experiments, in which she used an eNose to "smell" a number of volunteers who were complete strangers to one another, and then asked them to engage in nonverbal social interactions in pairs. After each such structured interaction, the participants rated the other individual in terms of how much they liked that person and how likely they were to become friends.


Subsequent analysis revealed that the individuals who had more positive interactions indeed smelled more like each other, as determined by the eNose. In fact, when Ravreby and statistician Dr. Kobi Snitz entered the data into a computational model, they were able to predict with 71 percent accuracy which two individuals would have a positive social interaction, based on eNose data alone. In other words, body odor appears to contain information that can predict the quality of social interactions between strangers.

その後の分析で、より積極的な交流を行った個人は、電子鼻によって、よりお互いに似た匂いを発していることが明らかになりました。実際、ラヴレビーと統計学者のKobi Snitz博士が計算モデルにデータを入力したところ、電子鼻のデータだけで、どの2人が積極的に交流するか71%の精度で予測することができました。つまり、体臭には、見知らぬ人同士の社会的交流の質を予測する情報が含まれているようなのです。

nonverbal 非言語的

"These results imply that, as the saying goes, there is chemistry in social chemistry," Ravreby concludes. Sobel offers words of caution: "This is not to say that we act like goats or shrews -- humans likely rely on other, far more dominant cues in their social decision-making. Nevertheless, our study's results do suggest that our nose plays a bigger role than previously thought in our choice of friends."









ワイツマン科学研究所(ヘブライ語: ???? ????? ?????, 英語: Weizmann Institute of Science)は、イスラエルのレホヴォトにある研究および高等教育機関。自然科学系の大学院のみである点が他の一般の大学とは異なる(大学院大学)。ヴァイツマン科学研究所とも。世界的にも有名な総合研究センターであり、約2,500名の科学者、博士号取得後のフェロー、大学院生、スタッフが働いている[1]。


社会的相互作用(しゃかいてきそうごさよう)または社会的インタラクション(英: Social interaction)、対人的相互反応とは、個人(やグループ)間の動的に変化する一連の社会的行為であり、その個人は相互作用のパートナーの行為への反応として自らの行為を変化させる。すなわち社会的相互作用とは、人々が状況に意味を持たせ、他者が意味しているものを解釈し、それに応じて反応する事象である。


サブリミナル・マインド 潜在的人間観のゆくえ (中公新書)内容(「BOOK」データベースより)



August 15, 2022



Published online 2018 Sep 12

The scent of attractiveness: levels of reproductive hormones explain individual differences in women's body odour




Individuals are thought to have their own distinctive body odour which reportedly plays an important role in mate choice. In the present study we investigated individual differences in body odours of women and examined whether some women generally smell more attractive than others or whether odour preferences are a matter of individual taste. We then explored whether levels of reproductive hormones explain women's body odour attractiveness, to test the idea that body odour attractiveness may act as a chemosensory marker of reproductive fitness.


Reproductive Fitness 生殖適応度
Chemosensory 化学感覚

Fifty-seven men rated body odours of 28 healthy, naturally cycling women of reproductive age. We collected all odours at peak fertility to control for menstrual cycle effects on body odour attractiveness. Women's salivary oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone and cortisol levels were assessed at the time of odour collection to test whether hormone levels explain body odour attractiveness.

oestradiol, エストラジオール
Progesterone プロゲステロン

We found that the men highly agreed on how attractive they found women's body odours. Interestingly, women's body odour attractiveness was predicted by their oestradiol and progesterone levels: the higher a woman's levels of oestradiol and the lower her levels of progesterone, the more attractive her body odour was rated. In showing that women's body odour attractiveness is explained by levels of female reproductive hormones, but not by levels of cortisol or testosterone, we provide evidence that body odour acts as a valid cue to potential fertility.


Keywords: olfaction, oestradiol, progesterone, odour preference, HLA, MHC

キーワード HLAヒト白血球抗原、MHC主要組織適合遺伝子複合体、匂い嗜好性、エストラジオール、嗅覚、プロゲステロン。

HLA(HLA(Human leukocyte antige):ヒト白血球抗原
MHC(major histocompatibility complex; MHC): 主要組織適合遺伝子複合体






恋の本質は「 ヒト(生物)として子孫を残すことであり 」「より強い(遺伝子的)相手を選ぶことでもあります。」 つまり、体臭の相性が合わない限り恋人や配偶者になれない、また、ならないほうが良いということです。







※参考文献 : 早稲田大学国際教養学部 教授 森川友義 著

MHC(major histocompatibility complex)

外来または非自己組織の拒絶に関与する遺伝子領域をMHCと呼び,ヒトではHLA(human leukocyte antigen),マウスではH2,ヒツジではOLAと名付けられている.このMHCはMHC抗原を規定する.MHC抗原は,細菌,ウイルスなどの外来または非自己抗原由来のペプチドと結合し,T細胞に抗原提示することにより,T細胞の活性化を誘導し,これらの外来抗原を非自己と認識し,攻撃・破壊させる.つまり,MHCは個体の恒常性維持という重要な意義を持っている.


August 09, 2022




Published: 09 January 2021

Ovarian odorant-like biomolecules in promoting chemotaxis behavior of spermatozoa olfactory receptors during migration, maturation, and fertilization


Chemotaxis 走化性





Studies have shown that olfactory receptor genes are the largest in the human genome, which are significantly expressed in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues such as the reproductive systems where they perform many important biological functions.


Main body


There is growing evidence that bioactive metabolites from the ovary, follicular fluid, and other parts of the female reproductive tract signal the sperm through a series of signal transduction cascades that regulate sperm migration, maturation, and fertilization processes. Several studies have highlighted the role of G-protein-coupled receptors in these cellular processes. Thus, we aimed to summarize the existing evidence describing the physiological role of most prominent exogenous and endogenous biomolecules found in the female reproductive organ in enhancing the chemotaxis behavior of spermatozoa during migration, maturation, and fertilization and also to elucidate the pathological implications of its dysfunctions and the clinical significance in human fertility.


follicular fluid 卵胞液
bioactive metabolites 生物活性代謝産物
G-protein-coupled receptors Gタンパク質共役型受容体

Short conclusion


In the future, drugs and molecules can be designed to activate these receptors on sperm to facilitate fertility among infertile couples and use as contraceptives.




When spermatozoa are released into the vagina near the cervical os, they have to travel through the different anatomical and biological environments of the female reproductive tract, like the cervix, uterus, utero-tubal junction, and then through the isthmus region of the fallopian tube before reaching the fertilization site. Within minutes, active sperm (morphologically healthy) reaches the final destination the isthmus region; thus, this movement seems to be facilitated by various mechanisms such as ciliary beating, muscular contraction mechanism of the female reproductive tract, thermotaxis and chemotaxis behavior plus molecules enhancing chemo-attraction that guides spermatozoa to the oocyte [1].


Vagina 膣
cervical os子宮頸管口
cervix 子宮頸管.
uterus 子宮
utero-tubal junction 
utero-tubal junction 子宮卵管接合部
isthmus region 峡部領域
fallopian tube 卵管
ciliary beating 繊毛搏動
muscular contraction mechanism 筋肉収縮機構
thermotaxis   走熱性

Chemotaxis can be defined as a guided movement with respect to the chemical concentration gradient in any environment or system. Studies have implicated the ovary, follicular fluid (FF), and the female reproductive tract as the primary sources of biochemically active biomolecules that facilitate oocyte-sperm communication during pre- and post-ovulatory period. Unfortunately, the studies aiming to find a bio-molecular predictor and their transduction signaling cascade in sperm migration, maturation, and fertilization involving chemotaxis behavior have been limited thus far.


follicular fluid (FF)  卵胞液(FF)
bio-molecular predictor 生体分子予測因子
post-ovulatory 排卵後

In the recent past, different multistep chemotaxis transduction pathways involved in sperm selection, survival, and binding of the oocyte have been identified [2, 3]. Studies have shown that FF offers an important microenvironment and nutritional status for the development of oocytes. It is known that FF constituents are products of blood plasma constituents that permeate the blood follicular barrier and of the secretory activity of thecal and granulosa cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that some critical regulators in the FF secreted from the ovary and reproductive tract play a crucial role in determining oocyte-sperm interaction and communication in a dose-dependent manner [4]. Some of these important biomolecules are involved in G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) chemotaxis behavior regulating sperm migration, selection, survival, maturation, and fertilization of the ovum [5].

近年、精子の選択、生存、卵子との結合に関与する多段階の走化性伝達経路が同定されている[2, 3]。卵胞液(FF)は卵母細胞の発達に重要な微小環境と栄養状態を提供することが研究により示されている。卵胞液(FF)の成分は、血液濾胞バリアを透過する血漿成分や、卵胞膜細胞および顆粒膜細胞の分泌活性の産物であることが知られている。したがって、卵巣および生殖管から分泌される卵胞液(FF)中のいくつかの重要な調節因子が、用量依存的に卵子と精子の相互作用およびコミュニケーションを決定する上で重要な役割を果たすと考えるのは妥当である[4]。これらの重要な生体分子の一部は、精子の移動、選択、生存、成熟、卵子の受精を制御するGタンパク質共役型受容体(GPCR)走化性行動に関与している[5]。

transduction pathways 伝達経路
blood follicular barrier血液濾胞バリア
theca cells 卵胞膜細胞
granulosa cells. 顆粒膜細胞
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)  Gタンパク質共役型受容体(GPCR)



私たちとともにあるウイルスという他者 - NATURE & SCIENCE



新型コロナウイルス(SARS-CoV-2)の感染が拡大しています。「かかったら怖い!」「こうやって感染を防ごう」という情報ばかり報道されていますが、そもそも「ウイルスとは何か?」から、知らないことばかり。ウイルスは多くの動物にとって病原性がある一方、他の生物に感染して増殖するサイクルを回す “生命体” ととらえると、また違う世界が見えてきます。生命の起源と進化を研究テーマに、さまざまな角度からウイルス研究に取り組む東海大学の中川 草先生にお話を聞きました。



July 21, 2022





Topical Sandalwood Oil for Common Warts



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sandalwood oil for cutaneous viral warts caused by human papillomavirus. Sandalwood oil was applied topically twice daily for 12 weeks to cutaneous warts on any area of the body. Data collected at each visit included measurement of wart size, photograph of the warts, and documentation of treatment compliance and any adverse reactions.


warts イボ(尋常性疣贅)
viral wartウイルス性疣贅{せい ゆうぜい}
Human papillomavirus:HPV:ヒトパピローマウイルス(ヒト乳頭腫ウイルス)

Ten subjects were enrolled and received treatment. At the end of the study, 8 of 10 (80%) had complete resolution of all treated warts. The remaining 2 subjects had improvement rated as moderate (25% to >90%). There were no complaints of skin irritation, erythema, itching, peeling of skin or scarring, pain or discomfort, or other adverse events reported. Sandalwood oil appears to be effective in the painless treatment of cutaneous warts caused by human papillomavirus.


Keywords: human papillomavirus; topical treatment; warts.

キーワード: ヒトパピローマウイルス(ヒト乳頭腫ウイルス)、局所治療、イボ

”ティートリー精油(Melaleuca alternifolia)による小児患者における手疣贅(イボ)の局所治療に成功”

Successful topical treatment of hand warts in a paediatric patient with tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia)
ティートリー精油(Melaleuca alternifolia)による小児患者における手疣贅(イボ)の局所治療の成功



Tea tree oil (TTO) (Melaleuca alternifolia) has been used recently as an effective topical application for the treatment of skin infections due to a variety of aetiological microbial agents, including mainly bacterial infections. We detail the first report in the peer-reviewed literature of the successful treatment with TTO of a paediatric patient with warts on her right middle finger.

ティートリー精油(TTO)(Melaleuca alternifolia)は,近年,主に細菌感染を含む様々な病因微生物因子による皮膚感染症の治療に有効な局所外用薬として使用されている。我々は,右中指にイボを有する小児患者のTTOによる治療の成功について,専門誌に初めて報告した。

Aetiological 病因の
microbial agent 微生物因子

TTO was applied topically once daily to the lesions for 12 days, with a successful outcome, including complete re-epithelization of the infected areas. The case highlights the potential use of TTO in the treatment of common warts due to human papilloma virus.




尋常性疣贅(じんじょうせいゆうぜい)は、ヒトパピローマウイルス(HPV)の感染によってできる。疣贅(ゆうぜい)と同義で、ウイルス性疣贅。ヒトパピローマウイルスのうち、上皮型に分類されるものが原因となり、ほとんどは良性腫瘍だが、極くまれに悪性化するものがある。子宮頸がんや陰部がんの原因とされる HPV は粘膜型でウイルスが異なる。尋常性疣贅は、よく手や足、顔に発生する。



July 15, 2022



Women temporarily synchronize their menstrual cycles with the luminance and gravimetric cycles of the Moon





Many species synchronize reproductive behavior with a particular phase of the lunar cycle to increase reproductive success. In humans, a lunar influence on reproductive behavior remains controversial, although the human menstrual cycle has a period close to that of the lunar cycle. Here, we analyzed long-term menstrual recordings of individual women with distinct methods for biological rhythm analysis. We show that women’s menstrual cycles with a period longer than 27 days were intermittently synchronous with the Moon’s luminance and/or gravimetric cycles. With age and upon exposure to artificial nocturnal light, menstrual cycles shortened and lost this synchrony. We hypothesize that in ancient times, human reproductive behavior was synchronous with the Moon but that our modern lifestyles have changed reproductive physiology and behavior.





In many marine species (1–5) and some terrestrial species (6–9), reproductive behavior is synchronized with a particular phase of the lunar cycle (often full or new moon). This arrangement increases reproductive success by synchronizing the reproductive behavior of the individual members of a species. In light of this fact, it is of interest that the human menstrual cycle has a period close to that of the lunar cycle and that several older studies report a relation between the cycles. Women whose cycles approach the ~29.5-day period of the Moon have been reported to have the highest likelihood to become pregnant (10–12).


marine species 海洋生物種
terrestrial species 陸上生物種

In these studies, about 28% of reproductively mature women showed a cycle length of 29.5 ± 1 days. Among populations of women selected for a cycle length of 29.5 ± 1 days, a significant pattern of menses onset at full moon emerged (13–15). Each of these studies comprised >300 women, and the tests were performed in different years and seasons. However, no correlation between menses onset and the lunar cycle was found in other studies that did not select for a cycle length of 29.5 days [reviewed in (13, 14)].

これらの研究では、生殖可能な成熟した女性の約28%が29.5±1日の周期長を示した。周期の長さが29.5±1日になるように選択された女性集団の中で、満月に月経が始まるという有意なパターンが出現した(13-15)。これらの研究はそれぞれ300人以上の女性を対象とし、試験は異なる年、季節に実施された。しかし、月経の開始と月の周期との相関は、29.5日の周期を選択しなかった他の研究では認められなかった[(13, 14)に総説あり]。

Significant correlations also appear to exist between birth rate and moon phase. Two systematic large longitudinal studies carried out between 1948 and 1957 and between 1961 and 1963 and encompassing around 250,000 and 500,000 births, respectively, found that birth rates were elevated by 2 to 3% over the average at full moon and reduced by the same amount during new moon (16, 17). More recent findings indicate that the elevation of births at the full moon occurs during the night, whereas births at the new moon tend to occur during the daytime (18). Nevertheless, the scientific community generally remains skeptical of reports of lunar influence on human biology (19).

出生率と月の満ち欠けの間にも有意な相関があるようである。1948年から1957年、1961年から1963年にかけて行われ、それぞれ約25万人と50万人の出生を対象とした2つの系統的な大規模縦断研究では、満月のときに出生率が平均より2〜3%上昇し、新月のときに同程度減少することがわかった(16, 17)。より最近の知見では、満月の出産率の上昇は夜間に起こり、新月の出産は日中に起こる傾向があることが示されている(18)。しかしながら、科学界は一般に、月の影響が人間の生物学に及ぼす影響についての報告には懐疑的である(19)。


July 14, 2022

優勢なオミクロン派生型(BA.4とBA.5)、ワクチン、抗体治療を回避するのに優れています。Science dailyより

Dominant omicron subvariants better at evading vaccines, antibody treatments


Date: July 5, 2022

Source: Columbia University Irving Medical Center

出典 コロンビア大学アービング・メディカルセンター



The latest omicron subvariants -- especially the currently dominant BA.4 and BA.5 forms -- are even better at eluding vaccines and most treatments, researchers have found.




The latest omicron subvariants -- including the BA.4 and BA.5 forms causing new surges in infections in the United States -- are even better at eluding vaccines and most antibody treatments than previous variants, finds a study by researchers at Columbia University Vagelos


subvariants  派生型

The study, led by David D. Ho, MD, director of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and the Clyde'56 and Helen Wu Professor of Medicine at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, was published July 5 in Nature.

この研究は、アーロンダイヤモンドエイズ研究センター所長で、コロンビア大学 ヴァジェロス医学大学院の Clyde'56 and Helen Wu 教授が率いる David D. Ho, MD が、7月5日に Nature に発表したものです。

Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons:ヴァジェロス医学大学院

Subvariants BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5 are rapidly expanding worldwide, with BA.4/5 now making up more than 50% of new COVID cases in the United States. These subvariants are thought to be even more transmissible than prior omicron subvariants, owing to several new mutations in spike proteins.


"The virus is continuing to evolve, as expected, and it is not surprising that these new, more transmissible subvariants are becoming more dominant around the world," says Ho. "Understanding how currently available vaccines and antibody treatments stand up to the new subvariants is critical to developing strategies to prevent severe disease, hospitalizations, and deaths -- if not infection."

「ウイルスは予想通り進化し続けており、これらの新しい、より感染力のある派生型が世界中で優勢になっていることは驚くことではありません」とHoは述べています。「現在入手可能なワクチンや抗体治療が、この新しい派生型にどのように対抗できるかを理解することは、感染しないまでも、重症化、入院、死亡を防ぐための戦略を開発する上で非常に重要です" とHoは述べている。

In laboratory experiments, Ho and his team studied the ability of antibodies from individuals who received at least three doses of an mRNA vaccine,or got two shots and were then infected with omicron, to neutralize the new subvariants. (Ho's team did not look at individuals who had not received a booster shot, because a previous study found that two doses provide little protection against infection by earlier omicron variants.)

実験室で、Hoと彼のチームは、少なくとも3回のmRNAワクチンを接種した人、または2回接種してオミクロンに感染した人からの抗体が、新しい派生型の中和能を研究した。 (Hoの研究チームは、ブースター接種をしなかった人については調べていない。以前の研究で、2回の接種では初期のオミクロン派生型による感染からほとんど防御されないことが判明しているからである)。

The study revealed that while BA.2.12.1 is only modestly more resistant than BA.2 in individuals who were vaccinated and boosted, BA.4/5 was at least four times more resistant than its predecessor.


In addition, the scientists tested the ability of 19 monoclonal antibody treatments to neutralize the variants and found that only one of the available antibody treatments remained highly effective against both BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5.


"Our study suggests that as these highly transmissible subvariants continue to expand around the globe, they will lead to more breakthrough infections in people who are vaccinated and boosted with currently available mRNA vaccines," Ho says. Though the current study suggests that the new variants may cause more infections in vaccinated individuals, the vaccines continue to provide good protection against severe disease.


ブレイクスルー感染(Breakthrough infection)とは、ワクチンを接種した患者が、そのワクチンが予防する筈のものと同じ病原体に感染してしまう事を指す

"Efforts in the United States to develop new vaccine boosters aimed at BA.4/5 may improve protection against infection and severe disease," Ho says. "In the current environment, though, we may need to look toward developing new vaccines and treatments that can anticipate ongoing evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus."


vaccine boosters ワクチン追加接種


July 12, 2022


Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases




Essential oils (EOs) are concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds which are extracted from herbs, flowers, and other plant parts. Oil is “essential” in the sense that it contains the “essence of” the plant’s fragrance. They are recommended for or encouraged to be applied as a complementary therapy for people with anxiety, pain, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression [1,2]. EOs can be absorbed into the body by oral administration, inhalation, diffusers, baths, and massages. Many studies show that EOs were effective in reducing pain, anxiety, and stress symptoms in animal models and humans with different CNS disorders [1,2]. EO constituents belong mainly to two chemical groups: terpenoids (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and some phenylpropanoid derivatives. Terpenoid group compounds are usually fairly hydrophobic with molecular weights below 300 Daltons [3].


hydrophobic liquid  疎水性液体
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD:注意欠如・多動症
bipolar disorder 双極性障害(躁うつ病)

Activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor system and the blockade of neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels (Na+ channels) are essential for the overall balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition which is vital for normal brain function and critical for the central nervous system (CNS) disorders. It has been suggested that EO constituents could exert their biological activities through modulating the GABAergic system and inhibiting Na+ channels [4,5]. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS and the GABA receptor system exerts a major inhibitory function in the brain. The dysfunction or deficiency of the GABAergic system has been implicated in epilepsy, pain, and anxiety [6]. Neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels mediate the propagation of action potentials along axons, and thus, are thought to be important targets of antiseizure drugs. Local anesthetics and analgesics prevent the transmission of nerve impulses via their binding to Na+ channels. Two main types of Na+ currents, termed tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and TTX-resistant, have been identified in the dorsal root ganglion [7,8]. Studies on Na+ channels have demonstrated a greater involvement of Nav1.7, a predominant subtype of TTX-sensitive sodium channels expressed principally in peripheral neurons [8], in inflammatory pain [9,10] and in pain sensation [11,12].


voltage-gated sodium channels 電位依存性ナトリウムチャンネル
action potentials 活動電位
axons 軸索
antiseizure drugs.抗けいれん薬
Local anesthetics 局所麻酔剤
tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive テトロドトキシン感受性
dorsal root ganglion:後根神経節(こうこんしんけいせつ)

Recently, many studies have addressed the potential of natural EOs for treatment of anxiety, convulsion, and pain in humans and in rodents or fish neuropathic models, and the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological profile. The main constituents of EOs were isolated and chemically elucidated. Recent studies indicate that many EOs and their constituents exert pharmacological properties through interactions with the GABAergic system and voltage-gated Na+ channels. An increasing number of studies show that: (1) many EOs used for the treatment of anxiety affect the function of the GABAergic system [13,14,15,16]; (2) many EOs with antinociceptive and anticonvulsant properties inhibit the function of neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels [17]; (3) some EOs affect the function of both the GABAergic system and voltage-gated Na+ channels [4,18].

最近、多くの研究が、ヒト、げっ歯類や魚類の神経障害モデルにおける不安、痙攣、痛みの治療に対する天然精油の可能性と、その薬理学的プロファイルの基礎となるメカニズムについて取り上げています。精油の主成分は単離され、化学的に解明されました。最近の研究では、多くの精油とその成分は、GABA作動性システムおよび電位依存性Na+チャネルとの相互作用を通じて薬理学的特性を発揮することが示されている。また、以下のような研究結果も増えています。(1)不安の治療に使用される多くの精油は、GABA作動性システムの機能に影響を与える[13,14,15,16]、(2)抗侵害受容および抗痙攣特性を持つ多くの精油は、神経細胞の電位依存性ナトリウムチャンネルの機能を阻害する[17]、(3) いくつかの精油はGABA作動性システムの機能と電位依存性ナトリウムチャンネルとの両方の機能に影響する[4,18]。

This review summarizes the beneficial effects of EOs and their constituents targeting the GABAergic system and neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels for CNS disorders, in particular with respect to their antinociceptive, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and sedative effects.



ベンゼン環(C6)に直鎖状プロパン(C3)が結合したC6-C3単位を基本骨格とする天然芳香族化合物であり、シキミ酸経路によって生合成される。各種ケイヒ酸誘導体が生成し狭義のフェニルプロパノイドとされているのもは、芳香を有する物が多く、ケイヒアルデヒドやアネトール、オイゲノールなど香料や芳香性健胃薬などの原料になっている。また、C3部分でラクトン環を形成したクマリン類、C6-C3単位2-4個が結合したリグナン類、C6-C3化合物からβ酸化によって生成したバニリンや安息香酸などのC6-C1化合物も広義のフェニルプロパノイドに属する。(2006.10.17 掲載)


ナトリウムチャネルは高い選択性を持ってナトリウムイオンを透過させるイオンチャネルである。ナトリウムチャネルとしては、電位依存性ナトリウムチャネル(Navチャネル)、および上皮性ナトリウムチャネル(ENaC)が知られているが、これらは分子構造が全く異なっているため、本項目では電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルについてのみ記述する。電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルはホジキン(Alan Lloyd Hodgkin)とハクスレー(Andrew Fielding Huxley)によるイカの巨大軸索を用いた研究によりその存在が予測され、1984年に沼博士らによって遺伝子が同定された。Navチャネルは細胞外に量が最も多い陽イオンであるナトリウムイオンを透過させることで、大きな内向き電流を生じ脱分極を効率よくもたらすことができる。中枢神経や末梢神経、骨格筋、心筋、内分泌細胞等に存在し、電位依存性カリウムチャネルと膜電位を介して機能的に共役することで、活動電位の開始および伝搬に本質的な役割を担っている。

神経因性疼痛治療薬としての 電位依存性ナトリウムチャネル遮断薬の探索研究

要約:電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルは,神経細胞の 興奮や伝達を担っており,痛みの神経伝達に深く関与 することが知られている.現在までに 9 種類(Nav1.1 〜Nav1.9)の電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルが報告されているが,その中で Nav1.7,Nav1.3,Nav1.8の3つ のサブタイプは神経障害性疼痛との関連性を示唆する 報告が多い.現在,臨床ではメキシレチン,リドカイ ンなどの電位依存性ナトリウムチャネル遮断薬が処方 されている.これら既存の治療薬は,サブタイプ非選 択的な薬剤であることから Nav1.7,Nav1.3,Nav1.8 の いずれにも作用することで鎮痛効果を示すと考えられ る.


テトロドトキシン (tetrodotoxin, TTX) は化学式C11H17N3O8 で表され、ビブリオ属やシュードモナス属などの一部の真正細菌によって生産されるアルカロイドである。一般にフグの毒として知られるが、他にアカハライモリ、ツムギハゼ、ヒョウモンダコ、スベスベマンジュウガニなど幾つかの生物もこの毒をもっている。習慣性がないため鎮痛剤[1]として医療に用いられる[2]。分子量は319.27。名称はフグ科に由来する

後根神経節における電位依存性 Na チャネルの機能解析 ~痛覚伝達における役割~

2.痛みとは 痛みは外部からの侵害的要因や体内の病的状態に対する警告反応としての役割を持ち,免疫系 と並ぶ重要な生体防御機構である.しかし,痛み は「不快な感覚性・情動性の体験であり,それに は組織損傷を伴うものと,そのような損傷がある ように表現されるものがある」(国際疼痛学会に よる)と定義されるように,非常に複雑なもので あり,それ自身が身体に有害な病態をもたらすと いう二面性を持つ. 皮膚感覚を受容する一次知覚神経はその細胞 体を後根神経節(dorsal root ganglion, 以下 DRG)に 持ち,末梢・中枢の両側に軸索を伸ばす,感覚情 報の伝達に最初にかかわっている神経である.一 次知覚神経は伝導速度,軸索線維の太さおよび髄 鞘の有無などにより,Aβ線維,Aδ線維,C 線維の三 種類に分類され,これらはそれぞれに異なる感覚 を伝えている. 通常,触,圧覚などの非侵害性刺激は有髄の太 い Aβ線維を介して伝達されるのに対し,痛みな どの侵害性の刺激は有髄の細い Aδ線維と無髄の 細い C 線維を介して伝達される.さらに Aδ線維 は鋭く識別性の高い一次痛を,C 線維は焼け付く ような,鈍く持続的な二次痛を伝達すると考えら れており,慢性痛など臨床的に問題になる痛み重要であるのはC線維である1), 2)(図 1).

3.電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルと痛み 神経細胞の情報伝達の基本である活動電位は 細胞膜のイオンチャネルを介したイオンの移動 により生じる.電位依存性ナトリウムチャネル (以下,Na チャネル)はその名のとおり,電位に 依存して開口し,Na イオンを選択的に透過させる イオンチャネルである.神経細胞,骨格筋細胞, 心筋細胞といった興奮性細胞に発現し,電位依存 性カリウムチャネルと共に活動電位の発生および伝播を担う膜機能分子である.


HOME ガイドライン がん疼痛の薬物療法に関するガイドライン(2010年版)
2章 背景知識 4 薬理学的知識 3 鎮痛補助薬 3. 各鎮痛補助薬の特徴

3. 各鎮痛補助薬の特徴 - 日本緩和医療学会
2章 背景知識 
4 薬理学的知識 3鎮痛補助薬
[作用機序・特徴] 主な作用機序として、


July 06, 2022




Brainstem-mediated sniffing and respiratory modulation during odor stimulation




The trigeminal and olfactory systems interact during sensory processing of odor. Here, we investigate odor-evoked modulations of brainstem respiratory networks in a decerebrated perfused brainstem preparation of rat with intact olfactory bulbs. Intranasal application of non-trigeminal odors (rose) did not evoke respiratory modulation in absence of cortico-limbic circuits.


brainstem preparation 培養脳幹
cortico-limbic circuits. 辺縁皮質回路
respiratory modulation 呼吸調節

Conversely, trigeminal odors such as menthol or lavender evoked robust respiratory modulations via direct activation of preserved brainstem circuits. Trigeminal odors consistently triggered short phrenic nerve bursts (fictive sniff), and the strong trigeminal odor menthol also triggered a slowing of phrenic nerve frequency.Phrenic and vagal nerve recordings reveal that fictive sniffs transiently interrupted odor evoked tonic postinspiratory vagal discharge. This motor pattern is significantly different from normal (eupneic) respiratory activity. This motor pattern is significantly different from normal (eupneic) respiratory activity.


phrenic nerve bursts 横隔神経破裂
eupneic respiratory 正常呼吸

In conclusion, we show for the first time the direct involvement of brainstem circuits in primary odor processing to evoke protective sniffs and respiratory modulation in the complete absence of forebrain commands.


Forebrain 前脳

Keywords: Behavior; Brainstem; Trigeminal.

キーワード: 行動;脳幹;三叉神経



本間 生夫 東京有明医療大学

 呼吸機能は生きていくために必要な機能であり、呼吸運動調節により、適切な換気が行われて いる。エネルギー代謝に必要な酸素を取り入れ、産生される二酸化炭素の量を調節し、体の酸・ 塩基平衡を一定に保っている。この代謝性呼吸のほかに行動性呼吸があり、種々の内的・外的環 境に適応した呼吸を生み出している。代謝性呼吸の中枢は延髄・橋の脳幹にあり、行動性呼吸の 中枢は随意呼吸を司る大脳皮質運動野と情動を司る大脳辺縁系に存在する。大脳辺縁系内の扁桃 体は感情を作りだす第一次中枢であるが、ここでも呼吸リズムが作りだされており、感情の変化に伴って呼吸が変化し、呼吸の変化に伴って感情も変化する。呼吸運動は呼吸筋の収縮により成立するが、この呼吸筋の動きを調節することにより、感情をコントロールすることが出来る。また、 呼吸筋を柔らかくすることで、機能的残気量を下げることが出来、慢性呼吸器疾患の患者さんや 高齢者の肺機能を改善することが出来る。呼吸筋ストレッチ体操は呼吸困難の軽減、肺機能の改善、 気分の安定に効果をあげている。


辞書:科学用語の基礎知識 生物学・器官名称編 (BBORGN)




大脳旧皮質 、大脳古皮質


扁桃体 (情動)、海馬 (長期)記憶)、帯状回 (動機付け)


June 28, 2022


Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases



Essential oils and the constituents in them exhibit different pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive, anxiolytic-like, and anticonvulsant effects. They are widely applied as a complementary therapy for people with anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, pain, and cognitive deficit symptoms through inhalation, oral administration, and aromatherapy. Recent studies show that essential oils are emerging as a promising source for modulation of the GABAergic system and sodium ion channels.


antinociceptive action 抗侵害受容作用
Nociceptive pain(侵害受容性疼痛): 侵害刺激や炎症によって活性化された発痛物質が侵害受容器を活性化することによって引き起こされる痛み
Anxiolytic-like effect抗不安様作用
anticonvulsant effects. 抗けいれん作用
cognitive deficit. 認知障害
GABAergic system GABA作動性システム
sodium ion channels. ナトリウムチャネル

This review summarizes the recent findings regarding the pharmacological properties of essential oils and compounds from the oils and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Specifically, the review focuses on the essential oils and their constituents targeting the GABAergic system and sodium channels, and their antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties. Some constituents target transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to exert analgesic effects. Some components could interact with multiple therapeutic target proteins, for example, inhibit the function of sodium channels and, at the same time, activate GABAA receptors. The review concentrates on perspective compounds that could be better candidates for new drug development in the control of pain and anxiety syndromes.


Keywords: essential oils, terpenes, GABA receptor, sodium channel, transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, pain, epilepsy, analgesics, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, antinociception, CNS, sensory neurons



GABA Receptor




Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid that functions as the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter for the central nervous system (CNS). It functions to reduce neuronal excitability by inhibiting nerve transmission. GABAergic neurons are located when the hippocampus, thalamus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and brainstem. The balance between inhibitory neuronal transmission via GABA and excitatory neuronal transmission via glutamate is essential for proper cell membrane stability and neurologic function.


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) : ガンマアミノ酪酸(GABA


June 24, 2022


The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application


Sachiko Koyama 1,* and Thomas Heinbockel 2,*

1 Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA

2 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
ハワード大学、ワシントンD.C 医学部解剖学科



Essential oils have been used in multiple ways, i.e., inhaling, topically applying on the skin, and drinking. Thus, there are three major routes of intake or application involved: the olfactory system, the skin, and the gastro-intestinal system. Understanding these routes is important for clarifying the mechanisms of action of essential oils.


the mechanisms of action 作用機序

Here we summarize the three systems involved, and the effects of essential oils and their constituents at the cellular and systems level. Many factors affect the rate of uptake of each chemical constituent included in essential oils. It is important to determine how much of each constituent is included in an essential oil and to use single chemical compounds to precisely test their effects.

ここでは、関連する3つのシステム、および 精油とその成分の効果を細胞およびシステムレベルで要約します。多くの要因は、精油に含まれる各化学成分の取り込み速度に影響を与えます。 精油に含まれる各成分どの程度含まれるかいるかを決定し、単体の化学成分を使用して その効果を正確に検証することが重要です。

Studies have shown synergistic influences of the constituents, which affect the mechanisms of action of the essential oil constituents. For the skin and digestive system, the chemical components of essential oils can directly activate gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors and transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels, whereas in the olfactory system, chemical components activate olfactory receptors. Here, GABA receptors and TRP channels could play a role, mostly when the signals are transferred to the olfactory bulb and the brain.


transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels:一過性受容体電位チャネル(TRP)チャネル
transient receptor 一過性受容体
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA):ガンマアミノ酪酸(GABA)受容体

Keywords: olfactory system; skin; gastro-intestine system; essential oils; oil constituents;

キーワード: 嗅覚系、皮膚、消化管系、精油、精油成分;


GABA - 脳科学辞典



温度感受性TRPチャンネル Science of Kampo Medicine 漢方医学 Vol.37 No.3 2013より

TRP チャネルの機能
TRP チャネルは細胞膜に存在するイオンチャネル型受容体の1 つであり,ヒトでは 6 つのサブファミリー,27 チャネルで構成される膨大なチャネル群です(図 1)1)1997 年に温度感受性TRP チャネルが発見されてから2),16年の間に9つのTRPチャネルが温度感受性であることがわかってきました 3)

ヒトの身体は外部の環境温度に応じて意識的に,あるいは無意識的に体温調節を行いながら深部体温を維持しています.環境温度の感知は,ヒトのみならず鳥類などの恒温動物をはじめ両生類,爬虫類,魚類などの変温動物,さらに無脊椎動物や単細胞生物など,多くの生物の生存にとって重要な機能の 1 つです.温度感受性Transient Receptor Potential(TRP)チャネルは,温度のみならず多くの化学的・物理的刺激を感受するセンサーとして多様な生体機能に関わっている.最近ではTRPチャネルが遺伝子疾患や消化器疾患,大腸がん,肺疾患などに関与していることが報告され注目を集めている.また,TRPV1チャネルは血管拡張や血流増加,腸管運動促進作用に関与することが明らかになってきた.ここではTRPV1チャネルの発見者でTRPチャネル研究の第一人者である富永真琴先生に,TRPチャネル研究の経緯と生体における機能について解説していただいた.



受容体 TRPV1 活性化温度閾値 43℃<

受容体 TRPV3 、活性化温度閾値32-39℃<
発現部位:皮膚・感覚神経・脳 脊髄・胃・大腸

受容体 TRPM8 活性化温度閾値<25-28℃

受容体 TRPA1  活性化温度閾値<17℃(?)

TRPV1 は酸の刺激でも活性化します.カプサイシンや熱, 酸は,いずれも痛みを引き起こすことから,TRPV1 の反応性は 痛み刺激を伝える神経が複数の 侵害刺激に反応することをよく 説明します.ほかにも黒胡椒の 辛み成分であるピペリンや,生 姜の辛み成分のジンゲロン,ジ ンゲロールなどもカプサイシン 受容体 TRPV1 に作用します. TRPV 1 活性化は灼熱感をもたらし,交感神経系を介して産熱も引き起こすことから,寒い地 域では,暖をとる意味でトウガ ラシを靴下や下着の中に入れた り,生姜風呂に入って体を温め たりするのです


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