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February 17, 2006




From Wikipedia, the free encycloped

Main high-volume products - turpentine; orange and lemon (see orange oil), mint and citronella are essential oils. Prior to the discovery of distillation, essential oils were extracted by pressing, and this is still the case in cultures such as Egypt. Traditional Egyptian practice involves pressing the plant material, and then burying it in unglazed ceramic vessels in the desert for a period of months to drive out water, the water having a smaller molecular size diffuses through the ceramic vessels while the larger essential oils do not. The lotus oil in Tutankhamun's tomb, which retained its scent after 3000 years sealed in alabaster vessels, was pressed in this manner.


turpentine :テレビン油
citronella :シトロネラ、コウスイガヤ
unglazed :素焼きの
vessel :容器、うつわ
alabaster :雪花石膏

Today, most common essential oils, such as lavender, peppermint, and eucalyptus, are distilled. Raw plant material, consisting of the flowers, leaves, wood, bark, roots, seeds, or peel, is put into an alembic (distillation apparatus) over water, and the volatile compounds are vaporized as the water is heated. The vapor flows into a cooling tank, and as the steam condenses, the essential oil, which is lighter than water, floats on top. The water is referred to as a hydrosol, hydrolat, or plant water essence. Popular hydrosols are rose water, lavender water, and orange blossom water. Most oils are distilled in a single process. One exception is ylang-ylang, which takes 22 hours to complete distillation. It is fractionally distilled, producing several grades.

今日、ラベンダー、ペパーミント、およびユーカリなどの一般的なオイルは蒸留されます。花、葉、木、樹皮、根、種または果皮からなる植物原料は水で一面覆った蒸留器(蒸留装置)に入れて、水が熱されることで揮発性化合物が蒸発されます。水蒸気が冷却タンクに入り、水蒸気が濃縮されると、水より軽いエセンシャルオイルが表面に浮きます。水はハイドロゾル、ハイドロラット、または植物水エセンスと呼ばれています。人気のあるハイドロゾル(芳香蒸留水)はローズ水、ラベンダー水、オレンジ花水です。多くのオイルは一工程で蒸留されます。一つの例外はイランイランで完全に蒸留に終了するのに22時間掛かります。 オイルは部分的に蒸留されて、いくつかのグレードを産生します。

alembic :蒸留器
distillation apparatus :蒸留装置
volatile compound :揮発性化合物
vaporize :揮発する、(蒸)気化する、蒸発する、
vapor :蒸気、水蒸気、気体


Most citrus peel oils are usually expressed mechanically, or cold-pressed. These oils are usually by-products of the large-scale citrus industry, and thus are much cheaper than most distilled oils.



Some flowers contain very little volatile oil, or EO components are too delicate to be distilled. Instead, a solvent such as hexane or supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract a concrete, or mixture of essential oil and other lipophilic (oil soluble) plant material. The solvent is then removed by distillation for re-use. Then another solvent, often ethyl alcohol, is used to extract the essential oil from the concrete. The alcohol is removed by a second distillation, leaving behind the absolute. Hence these types of essential oils, from plants such as jasmine and rose, are called absolutes.


supercritical carbon dioxide 超臨界二酸化炭素
lipophilic :親油性の
solvent :溶剤
ethyl alcohol :エチル・アルコール

In supercritical fluid extraction, high pressure carbon dioxide gas (up to 100 atm.) is used as a solvent. This avoids petrochemical residues in the extracted product and is identical to one of the techniques for making decaffeinated coffee.

超臨界抽出法では、高圧二酸化炭素「炭酸ガス」(最大100気圧)は溶剤として使用されます。 これは、抽出されたオイル中に石油化学製品残渣を避けて、カフェイン抜きのコーヒーを作るための技術の1つと同一です。





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