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April 28, 2012


Surface rejuvenating effect of Achillea millefolium extract.


Achillea millefolium:英名:Yarrow:ヤロー、和名:セイヨウノコギリソウ、キク科


Int J Cosmet Sci. 2011 Dec;33(6):535-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2011.00667.x. Epub 2011 Jun 2
Pain S, Altobelli C, Boher A, Cittadini L, Favre-Mercuret M, Gaillard C, Sohm B, Vogelgesang B, André-Frei V.


BASF Beauty Care Solutions France S.A.S, 32 rue Saint-Jean-de-Dieu, F-69366, Lyon Cedex 07, France.



Proopiomelanocortin is a precursor peptide that gives rise to several neuropeptides including adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin. POMC-derived peptides have been shown to be synthesized in human epidermis where they modulate numerous skin functions.

プロオピオメラノコルチンは副腎皮質刺激ホルモン(ATCH) およびβ-エンドルフィンを含むいくつかの神経ペプチドを生じさせる前駆ペプチドである。プロオピオメラノコルチン由来ペプチドはそれらが多くの皮膚機能を調整するヒト表皮で合成されることを示した。

Because we previously observed that melanocortin receptor-2 and μ-opioid receptor 1, the respective receptors for ACTH and β-endorphin decreased with ageing in human epidermis, we have selected an active ingredient (INCI name: Achillea millefolium extract) able to upregulate receptor expressions.

メラノコルチン受容体-2とμ-オピオイド受容体 1、副腎皮質刺激ホルモン(ACTH)およびβ-エンドルフィンのそれぞれの受容体がヒト表皮で老化ともに減少したことを観察したわけで、我々は受容体発現を増加させることができる活性成分(化粧品原料の国際命名:セイヨウノコギリソウエキス)を選択した。

melanocortin receptor-2 メラノコルチン受容体-2
μ-opioid receptor 1 :μ-オピオイド受容体 1

The aim of the present work was first to evaluate the effect of A. millefolium extract on the expression pattern of various epidermal differentiation markers ex vivo in normal human skin biopsies using quantitative image analysis and second to evaluate its capacity to rejuvenate the appearance of skin surface in vivo.


quantitative image analysis 定量的画像分析
normal human skin biopsies 正常ヒト皮膚生検
epidermal differentiation markers 表皮分化のマーカー

Results show an improved expression profile of cytokeratin 10, transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin in cultured skin biopsies as well as an increased epidermal thickness. In vivo, a 2-month treatment with A. millefolium extract at 2% significantly improved the appearance of wrinkles and pores compared with placebo. Results were also directionally better than those of glycolic acid that was chosen as reference resurfacing molecule.


expression profile:発現様式
cytokeratin 10:サイトケラチン-10
transglutaminase-1 トランスグルタミナーゼ-1
filaggrin フィラグリン
epidermal thickness 皮膚層の厚み
glycolic acid グリコール酸
美容整形領域では、皮膚を削り取って、新しい皮膚ができるのを待つ方法。 しわ・しみ・ニキビ跡など、新しい皮膚を作ってやることで改善が期待できる状態に







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April 23, 2012


Your Subconscious Mind


The cellular level, where emotions are instigated, is also where unexpressed emotions are stored. The catharsis of illness expresses the sudden, overwhelming release of information that has been trapped in our bodies. What Freud termed the ’subconscious’ mind is actually a measurable physical process. In other words, there is no ‘mind-body problem’. Your body is your subconscious mind.

感情が誘発される細胞レべルでは同じく表現されていない感情が貯蔵されるところです。病気の浄化は私たちの身体に閉じ込められていた情報の突然の圧倒的な放出を発現します。フロイトが「潜在意識」の心と呼んだものは実際に測定可能な身体過程です。 換言すれば、「心身相関問題」はありません。 あなたの身体はあなたの潜在意識の心です。

mind-body problem 心身相関問題
Unexpressed emotion 表現されていない感情

The Chakra System


Dr. Pert’s work is beginning to reveal the scientific underpinnings of the chakra system. From this point of view, the chakras are ‘minibrains’: nodal points of electrical and chemical activity that receive, process, and distribute information from and to the rest of the bodymind.

パート博士の業績は、チャクラ・システムの科学的根拠を明らかにし始めています。この視点から見て、チャクラは「ミニ脳」です: 受信、加工処理して心身からの情報を他の心身に配布する電気的および化学活性の結節点。

scientific underpinnings 科学的根拠
nodal points:結節点(網を作る各神経が相交わる場所)

Physiologically, each chakra is the site of a neuronal plexus–a network of cells dense with neuropeptide transmitters.


neuronal plexus 神経叢

All are interdependently connected to each other, such that nourishing any one plexus enhances the effectiveness of the entire system.


By the same token, trauma or neglect can manifest as a block at one or more nodal points, degrading the performance of all.


neglect ネグレクト、無視

How the Chakras Interact


The activities of the physiological chakra centers constantly wax and wane in relationship to one another.


In each plexus, vacant neuropeptide receptors stand ready to receive informational substances from other nodal points.


When the bodymind requires any one chakra’s special genius, the plexus in that location can release neuropeptides to the other chakras, driving the activities of the entire organism.


In some stressful situations, for example, digestion stops while the heart rate increases, muscles tense, perception shifts, and breathing speeds up.


These changes could result from the first chakra–associated with survival–temporarily taking the lead and directing functions typically associated with the other chakra nodes.


In such instances, the first chakra would act as a ‘brain’, governing certain key subconscious decisions.”





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April 21, 2012

「あなたの身体は潜在意識である」CDキャンダス・パート博士著書 紹介


On Your Body Is Your Subconscious Mind, Dr. Pert describes her efforts over the past two decades to actually decode the “information molecules,” such as peptides and their receptors, that regulate every aspect of human physiology. Her model of how these biochemicals flow and resonate, distributing information to every cell in the body simultaneously, has unlocked the secret of how emotions literally transform our bodies – and create our health.


biochemicals 生化学物質

Easily shifting from a bench scientist’s view to a spiritual one, she relates her research to past and present mind/body topics, ranging from AIDS and cancer to the chakra system.


Dr. Pert’s personal and compelling voice makes this a listening experience that is part detective story, part spiritual odyssey – and entirely irresistable. From the wisdom of the body to the wisdom of the laboratory, Your Body Is Your Subconscious Mind takes listeners on a scientific adventure of the first order, escorted by this pathfinder, iconoclast, and “goddess” of neuroscience.



Molecules of Emotion


” The opiate receptor is a molecule on the surface of our cells.


When morphine or opium enters our bodies, its molecules travel in the fluid surrounding the cells and are attracted to the opiate receptors.


The opiate and receptor molecules bind together, transferring information into the cell through the receptor’s ‘roots’


The cell responds by experiencing bliss.


receptor molecules 受容体分子

Dr. Pert found that the opiate receptors, while densely concentrated in the limbic brain, also occur in every other part of the body.


The implication is that the emotion – in this case, bliss – is not generated by the brain, but by the cells themselves.


Since these receptor-bearing cells reside all over our bodies, the blissful experience occurs in the blood, organs, muscles, tissue and bones at the same time as it is registered in the brain.


The limbic brain transfers the information to the frontal cortex, where we become conscious of it.


It is only at this point that we begin to form ideas about what we are feeling.


The experience itself occurs at a preconscious, physiological level.


limbic brain 辺縁系の脳
receptor-bearing cells 受容体保持細胞
frontal cortex 前頭皮質

Every cell in our bodies is studded with hundreds of thousands of receptor molecules, each one programmed to attract and bind with a particular peptide. Because of their crucial role in guiding our bodies’ responses to inner and outer cues, these peptides have been called ‘informational substances.




以前は外因性の麻薬性鎮痛物質が結合する脳内の作用点として「オピエート受容体 (Opiate Receptor)」と称されたが、受容体タンパク質と結合する生理活性ペプチドとしてβエンドルフィンなどのオピオイドペプチドが発見されるに伴い、オピオイド受容体と呼ばれるようになった。


They found that the opiate receptors were concentrated in those regions of the mammalian brain and spinal cord that are involved in the perception and integration of pain and emotional experience .





感情の分子(Molecules of Emotion):オピオイド受容体発見者キャンダス・パート博士著紹介




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April 19, 2012


Another mechanism that lends credence to physiology as the source of intestinal dysfunctions is the system of mast cells in the gut that have an important role in immune response.


mast cells:肥満細胞、マスト細胞

"During stress, trauma or 'fight or flight' reactions, the barrier between the lumen, the interior of the gut where food is digested, and the rest of the bowel could be broken, and bad stuff could get across," Dr. Wood said. "So the big brain calls in more immune surveillance at the gut wall by activating mast cells."

「ストレス状態、トラウマまたは闘争か逃避の反応で、腸の内腔、食物が消化される内部と他の腸とのバリアが壊れて、有害菌が浸透することになるだろうとDr. Wood博士は述べた。「したがって、大きな脳は肥満細胞活性化によって腸壁にある多くの免疫監視機構に援助を求めます」

fight or flight' reaction 闘争か逃避の反応
immune surveillance:免疫監視機構

These mast cells release histamines and other inflammatory agents, mobilizing the enteric nervous system to expel the perceived intruders, and causing diarrhea.


Inflammation induced by mast cells may turn out to be crucial in understanding and treating GI disorders. Inflamed tissue becomes tender. A gut under stress, with chronic mast cell production and consequent inflammation, may become tender, as well.


In animals, Dr. Mawe said, inflammation makes the sensory neurons in the gut fire causing a kind of sensory hyperactivity. "I have a theory that some chronic disorders may be caused by something like attention deficit disorder in the gut," he said.

動物で、炎症が腸の知覚神経をさらに多く炎症させて、ある種知覚の多動性を引き起こすとDr. Mawe博士は述べた。ある慢性胃腸疾患は腸内で注意欠陥障害のようなものによって引き起こされているのかもしれない。

attention deficit disorder 注意欠陥障害

Dr. Gershon, too, theorizes that physiology is the original culprit in brain-gut dysfunctions. "We have identified molecular defects in the gut of everyone who has irritable bowel syndrome," he said. "If you were chained by bloody diarrhea to a toilet seat, you, too, might be depressed."


molecular defects 分子欠陥
bloody diarrhea:血性下痢

Still, psychology clearly plays a role. Recent studies suggest that stress, especially early in life, can cause chronic GI diseases, at least in animals. "If you put a rat on top of a little platform surrounded by water, which is very stressful for a rat, it develops the equivalent of diarrhea," Dr. Mayer said.

さらに、心理学は明らかに役割を演じています。特に幼少期のストレスは少なくとも動物で慢性消化器疾患を引き起こすことになると最新研究は示唆しています。ラットにとって極めてストレスが多い水に囲まれた小さなプラットフォーム上に置かれると、下痢症状を発症しますとDr. Mayer博士は述べました。

Another experiment showed that when young rats were separated from their mothers, the layer of cells that line the gut, the same barrier that is strengthened by mast cells during stress, weakened and became more permeable, allowing bacteria from the intestine to pass through the bowel walls and stimulate immune cells.


young rats 若年ラット
bowel walls:腸管壁

"In rats, it's an adaptive response," Dr. Mayer said. "If they're born into a stressful, hostile environment, nature programs them to be more vigilant and stress responsive in their future life."

「ラットではそれが適応応答になりますとDr. Mayer博士は述べた。ラットがストレスの多い厳しい環境に生まれると、より用心深くなって将来の生活でより活発にストレス反応するように自然がプログラムしているとDr. Mayer博士は述べた。」

He said up to 70 percent of the patients he treats for chronic gut disorders had experienced early childhood traumas like parents' divorces, chronic illnesses or parents' deaths. "I think that what happens in early life, along with an individual's genetic background, programs how a person will respond to stress for the rest of his or her life," he said.


Either way, what is good for one brain is often good for the other, too. A team of researchers from Penn State University recently discovered a possible new direction in treating intestinal disorders, biofeedback for the brain in the gut.



In an experiment published in a recent issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Robert M. Stern, a professor of psychology at Penn State, found that biofeedback helped people consciously increase and enhance their gastrointestinal activity. They used the brains in their heads, in other words, to help the brains in their guts, proving that at least some of the time two brains really are better than one.

神経消化器病と運動性と運動性の最新号で公表された実験で、ペンシルベニア州立大学心理学教授、Robert M. Sternはバイオフィードバックが意識的にヒトの消化管活動を増加および増強させることに役立つことを解明した。彼らは自分の脳を用いて、言い換えれば、彼らの腸の脳を助けて、少なくとも時々、2つ脳が実際に一つの脳よりよいことを証明した。

gastrointestinal activity 消化管活動


The Other Brain Also Deals With Many Woes






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April 17, 2012


The enteric nervous system was first described in 1921 by Dr. J. N. Langley, a British physician who believed that it was one of three parts - along with the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems - of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary behaviors like breathing and circulation. In this triad, the enteric nervous system was seen as something of a tag-along to the other two.

腸神経系は英国医師のDr. J. N. Langley博士によって1921年に記述された。彼は腸神経系が副交感神経および交感神経系と並んで呼吸および循環などの不随的行動を管理する自律神経系3つの部分の一つであると考えていた。

After Langley died, scientists more or less forgot about the enteric nervous system. Years later, when Dr. Gershon reintroduced the concept and suggested that the gut might use some of the same neurotransmitters as the brain, his theory was widely ridiculed.


"It was like saying that New York taxi drivers never miss a showing of 'Tosca' at the Met," he recalled.


By the early 80's, scientists had accepted the idea of the enteric nervous system and the role of neurotransmitters like serotonin in the gut.


It is no surprise that there is a direct relationship between emotional stress and physical distress. "Clinicians are finally acknowledging that a lot of dysfunction in GI disorders involves changes in the central nervous system," said Gary M. Mawe, a professor of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of Vermont.

感情的ストレスと身体的ストレスとの直接的関係があることは不思議ではない。「臨床医は、胃腸障害における多くの機能障害は中枢神経系の変調を伴うことをついに認めていますとバーモント大学、解剖学および神経生物学の教授、Gary M. Mawe,は述べた。

GI disorders 胃腸障害

The big question is which comes first, physiology or psychology?


The enteric and central nervous systems use the same hardware, as it were, to run two very different programs. Serotonin, for instance, is crucial to feelings of well-being. Hence the success of the antidepressants known as S.S.R.I.'s that raise the level of serotonin available to the brain.


SSRI :Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors; SSRI):選択的セロトニン再取り込み阻害薬・抗うつ薬の一種

But 95 percent of the body's serotonin is housed in the gut, where it acts as a neurotransmitter and a signaling mechanism. The digestive process begins when a specialized cell, an enterochromaffin, squirts serotonin into the wall of the gut, which has at least seven types of serotonin receptors. The receptors, in turn, communicate with nerve cells to start digestive enzymes flowing or to start things moving through the intestines.


signaling mechanismシグナル伝達機構

Serotonin also acts as a go-between, keeping the brain in the skull up to date with what is happening in the brain below. Such communication is mostly one way, with 90 percent traveling from the gut to the head.


Many of those messages are unpleasant, and serotonin is involved in sending them. Chemotherapy drugs like doxorubicin, which is used to treat breast cancer, cause serotonin to be released in the gut, leading to nausea and vomiting. "The gut is not an organ from which you wish to receive frequent progress reports," Dr. Gershon said.



Serotonin is also implicated in one of the most debilitating gut disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, or I.B.S., which causes abdominal pain and cramping, bloating and, in some patients, alternating diarrhea and constipation.


"You can run any test you want on people with I.B.S., and their GI tracts look essentially normal," Dr. Mawe said. The default assumption has been that the syndrome is a psychosomatic disease.

「過敏性腸症候群の患者にあなたが望むあらゆる検査をして、それらの胃腸管は本質的に正常に見えるとDr. Mawe博士は述べた。不履行の想定は症候群が心身症であるいうことでした。

psychosomatic disease 心身症

But it turns out that irritable bowel syndrome, like depression, is at least in part a function of changes in the serotonin system. In this case, it is too much serotonin rather than too little.


In a healthy person, after serotonin is released into the gut and initiates an intestinal reflex, it is whisked out of the bowel by a molecule known as the serotonin transporter, or SERT, found in the cells that line the gut wall.

健常な人で、 セロトニンが腸に放出されて腸の反射を始める後に、それは腸壁にならんでいる細胞にみられるセロトニン輸送体、またはSERTとして知られている分子によって腸から払いのけられる。

Serotonin transporter:セロトニン輸送体
intestinal reflex 腸の反射

People with irritable bowel syndrome do not have enough SERT, so they wind up with too much serotonin floating around, causing diarrhea.


The excess serotonin then overwhelms the receptors in the gut, shutting them down and causing constipation.


When Dr. Gershon, whose work has been supported by Novartis, studied mice without SERT, he found that they developed a condition very much like I.B.S. in humans.

によって支援されたDr. Gershon博士の研究はセルトニンのないマウスを研究したとき、彼はヒトの過敏性大腸症候群と同様な症状を発症した。

Several new serotonin-based drugs - intestinal antidepressants, in a way - have brought hope for those with chronic gut disorders.



The Other Brain Also Deals With Many Woes






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April 14, 2012


Two brains are better than one. At least that is the rationale for the close - sometimes too close - relationship between the human body's two brains, the one at the top of the spinal cord and the hidden but powerful brain in the gut known as the enteric nervous system.


enteric nervous system 腸神経系

For Dr. Michael D. Gershon, the author of "The Second Brain" and the chairman of the department of anatomy and cell biology at Columbia, the connection between the two can be unpleasantly clear. "Every time I call the National Institutes of Health to check on a grant proposal," Dr. Gershon said, "I become painfully aware of the influence the brain has on the gut."

「第二の脳」の著者でありコロンビア大学の解剖・細胞生物学部教授のDr. Michael D. Gershon博士にとって、2つの脳との関係は不愉快にも明確であります。私が国立衛生研究所に研究助成金について調査の電話をかけるたびに、私は脳が腸に影響することを痛いほど知ります。とDr. Gershonは述べた。

In fact, anyone who has ever felt butterflies in the stomach before giving a speech, a gut feeling that flies in the face of fact or a bout of intestinal urgency the night before an examination has experienced the actions of the dual nervous systems.


butterflies in the stomach:緊張して落ちつかない

The connection between the brains lies at the heart of many woes, physical and psychiatric. Ailments like anxiety, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers and Parkinson's disease manifest symptoms at the brain and the gut level.


"The majority of patients with anxiety and depression will also have alterations of their GI function," said Dr. Emeran Mayer, professor of medicine, physiology and psychiatry at the University of California, Los Angeles.

また、大多数の不安およびうつ病患者は彼らの胃腸機能の変性がありますと、カルフォニア大学ロサンゼルス校、医学、生理学と精神医学の教授のDr. Emeran Mayer,は述べた。

A study in 1902 showed changes in the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract in cats confronted by growling dogs.


One system's symptoms - and cures - may affect the other. Antidepressants, for example, cause gastric distress in up to a quarter of the people who take them. Butterflies in the stomach are caused by a surge of stress hormones released by the body in a "fight or flight" situation. Stress can also overstimulate nerves in the esophagus, causing a feeling of choking.


Dr. Gershon, who coined the term "second brain" in 1996, is one of a number of researchers who are studying brain-gut connections in the relatively new field of neurogastroenterology. New understandings of the way the second brain works, and the interactions between the two, are helping to treat disorders like constipation, ulcers and Hirschprung's disease.

1996年に「第2の脳」用語を造語したDr. Gershonは、比較的新しい分野の神経消化器病学で脳と腸との関係を研究している多くの研究者の内の1人です。第2の脳の働き方および2つ脳との相互作用の新たな理解は便秘、潰瘍および先天性の腸管蠕動不全のような疾病を治療することに役立ちます。

neurogastroenterology 神経消化器病学
Hirschsprung's disease:先天性の腸管蠕動不全

The role of the enteric nervous system is to manage every aspect of digestion, from the esophagus to the stomach, small intestine and colon. The second brain, or little brain, accomplishes all that with the same tools as the big brain, a sophisticated nearly self-contained network of neural circuitry, neurotransmitters and proteins.

enteric nervous system 腸神経系

The independence is a function of the enteric nervous system's complexity.


"Rather than Mother Nature's trying to pack 100 million neurons someplace in the brain or spinal cord and then sending long connections to the GI tract, the circuitry is right next to the systems that require control," said Jackie D. Wood, professor of physiology, cell biology and internal medicine at Ohio State.

「母なる自然が脳または脊髄のどこかにある1億のニューロンをたばねて、次に消化管に接続するのに時間の係る伝達するより、神経回路は管理を必要とする系のちょうど隣においてあります。」とオハイオ州立大学、生理学、細胞生物学および内科学の教授、Jackie D. Wood,は述べた。

GI tract:胃腸管; 消化管
cell biology 細胞生物学

Two brains may seem like the stuff of science fiction, but they make literal and evolutionary sense.


evolutionary 進化上の, 進化的な

"What brains do is control behavior," Dr. Wood said. "The brain in your gut has stored within its neural networks a variety of behavioral programs, like a library. The digestive state determines which program your gut calls up from its library and runs."

「脳がすることは行動を管理することです。」とDr. Wood博士は述べた。あなたの腸内の脳は図書館のように神経回路網内に様々の行動プログラムを保存していた。消化状態はあなたの腸が図書館かどのプログラムを呼び出して実行するかを決めます。

When someone skips lunch, the gut is more or less silent. Eat a pastrami sandwich, and contractions all along the small intestines mix the food with enzymes and move it toward the lining for absorption to begin. If the pastrami is rotten, reverse contractions will force it - and everything else in the gut - into the stomach and back out through the esophagus at high speed.

誰かが昼食を抜くと、腸は大体静かになります。パストラーミ サンドイッチを食べると、小腸に沿ってすべて収縮して、酵素と食べ物を混ぜあわせて、吸収を始めるためにそれは内腸被膜に向けて移動します。パストラーミが腐っている場合は、強制的に逆の収縮が起こって、腸の全ての物は胃に逆流し、高速で食道を通って外にでます。

In each situation, the gut must assess conditions, decide on a course of action and initiate a reflex.


"The gut monitors pressure," Dr. Gershon said. "It monitors the progress of digestion. It detects nutrients, and it measures acid and salts. It's a little chemical lab."

「腸は圧を監視すると」Dr. Gershonは述べた。「腸は消化過程を監視し、栄養素を検出し、酸及び塩を測定する。これは小さな化学実験室である。」

The enteric system does all this on its own, with little help from the central nervous system.



The Other Brain Also Deals With Many Woes






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April 02, 2012


Researchers around the World have Linked Gut Problems to Brain Disorders.


Brain disorders can take many forms, one of which is autism. In this particular area you can again find compelling evidence of the link between brain and gut health. For example, gluten intolerance is frequently a feature of autism, and many autistic children will improve when following a strict gluten-free diet. Many autistic children also tend to improve when given probiotics, either in the form of fermented foods or probiotic supplements.


gluten intolerance グルテン不耐症
gluten-free diet グルテン除去食
probiotics プロバイオティクス

Dr. Andrew Wakefield is just one of many who have investigated the connection between developmental disorders and bowel disease. He has published about 130-140 peer-reviewed papers looking at the mechanism and cause of inflammatory bowel disease, and has extensively investigated the brain-bowel connection in the context of children with developmental disorders such as autism.

Dr. Andrew Wakefield博士は、まさに発達障害と腸疾患との関係を調査した大多数研究者の1人です。彼は、炎症性腸疾患のメカニズムおよび原因を調べる約130-140の査読された文献を公表し、自閉症などの発達障害の子どもに関連して脳腸関係を調査しました。

developmental disorders 発達障害
bowel disease 大腸疾患

A large number of replication studies have also been performed around the world, by other researchers, confirming the curious link between brain disorders such as autism and gastrointestinal dysfunction. For a list of more than 25 of those studies, please see this previous article.

replication study:繰り返し実験、追試(結果の再現性を確認する実験)
gastrointestinal dysfunction 胃腸障害

Other Health Benefits of Probiotics


Your body contains about 100 trillion bacteria -- more than 10 TIMES the number of cells you have in your entire body. Ideally, the ratio between the bacteria in your gut is 85 percent "good" and 15 percent "bad."

In addition to the psychological implications discussed above, a healthy ratio of good to bad gut bacteria is essential for:


*Protection against over-growth of other microorganisms that could cause disease


*Digestion of food and absorption of nutrients


*Digesting and absorbing certain carbohydrates


*Producing vitamins, absorbing minerals and eliminating toxins


*Preventing allergies


Signs of having an excess of unhealthy bacteria in your gut include gas and bloating, fatigue, sugar cravings, nausea, headaches, constipation or diarrhea.


sugar cravings 糖質渇望

What Interferes With Healthy Gut Bacteria?


Your gut bacteria do not live in a bubble; rather, they are an active and integrated part of your body, and as such are vulnerable to your lifestyle. If you eat a lot of processed foods, for instance, your gut bacteria are going to be compromised because processed foods in general will destroy healthy microflora and feed bad bacteria and yeast.


Your gut bacteria are also very sensitive to:




*Chlorinated water


*Antibacterial soap


*Agricultural chemicals




Because of these latter items, to which virtually all of us are exposed at least occasionally, it's generally a good idea to "reseed" the good bacteria in your gut by taking a high-quality probiotic supplement or eating fermented foods.


Tips for Optimizing Your Gut Bacteria


Getting back to the issue of inflammation for a moment, it's important to realize that an estimated 80 percent of your immune system is actually located in your gut, which is why you need to regularly reseed your gut with good bacteria.


Additionally, when you consider that your gut is your second brain AND the seat of your immune system, it becomes easy to see how your gut health can impact your brain function, psyche, and behavior, as they are interconnected and interdependent in a number of different ways—several of which are discussed above.


In light of this, here are my recommendations for optimizing your gut bacteria.


*Fermented foods are still the best route to optimal digestive health, as long as you eat the traditionally made, unpasteurized versions. Healthy choices include lassi (an Indian yoghurt drink, traditionally enjoyed before dinner), fermented milk such as kefir, various pickled fermentations of cabbage, turnips, eggplant, cucumbers, onions, squash and carrots, and natto (fermented soy).



*If you regularly eat fermented foods such as these that, again, have not been pasteurized (pasteurization kills the naturally occurring probiotics), your healthy gut bacteria will thrive.


*Probiotic supplement. Although I'm not a major proponent of taking many supplements (as I believe the majority of your nutrients need to come from food), probiotics are definitely an exception. I have used many different brands over the past 15 years and there are many good ones out there. I also spent a long time researching and developing my own, called Complete Probiotics, in which I incorporated everything I have learned about this important tool over the years.


*If you do not eat fermented foods, taking a high quality probiotic supplement is definitely recommended.


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