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August 28, 2013


New Brain Imaging Study Provides Support for the Notion of Food Addiction―Science daily



Brain Imaging Study 脳画像研究
food addiction 食物依存症

Consuming highly processed carbohydrates can cause excess hunger and stimulate brain regions involved in reward and cravings, according to a Boston Children's Hospital research team led by David Ludwig, MD, PhD director, New Balance Foundation Obesity Prevention Center. These findings suggest that limiting these "high-glycemic index" foods could help obese individuals avoid overeating.

ニューバランス基金・肥満予防センター、デビッドルートヴィヒ、MD、PhD・ディレクターよって率いられるボストン小児病院研究チームによると、高度に加工された炭水化物摂取は過剰な空腹を引き起こして、報酬および渇望に関与する脳領域を刺激することになる。これらの研究結果は、これらの "高グリセミック指数"の食品を制限することは肥満人が過食を避けるために役立つことができるだろう。

The study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on June 26, 2013, investigates how food intake is regulated by dopamine-containing pleasure centers of the brain."Beyond reward and craving, this part of the brain is also linked to substance abuse and dependence, which raises the question as to whether certain foods might be addictive," says Ludwig.


American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:米国臨床栄養学会誌
substance abuse and dependence 薬物の乱用および依存症

To examine the link, researchers measured blood glucose levels and hunger, while also using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe brain activity during the crucial four-hour period after a meal, which influences eating behavior at the next meal. Evaluating patients in this time frame is one novel aspect of this study, whereas previous studies have evaluated patients with an MRI soon after eating.


blood glucose levels 血糖値

Twelve overweight or obese men consumed test meals designed as milkshakes with the same calories, taste and sweetness. The two milkshakes were essentially the same; the only difference was that one contained rapidly digesting (high-glycemic index) carbohydrates and the other slowly digesting (low-glycemic index) carbohydrates.


glycemic index :血糖指数, 血糖上昇率, 血糖上昇速度

After participants consumed the high-glycemic index milkshake, they experienced an initial surge in blood sugar levels, followed by sharp crash four hours later.


This decrease in blood glucose was associated with excessive hunger and intense activation of the nucleus accumbens, a critical brain region involved in addictive behaviors.


nucleus accumbens : 側坐核

Prior studies of food addiction have compared patient reactions to drastically different types of foods, such as high-calorie cheesecake versus boiled vegetables.


Another novel aspect of this study is how a specific dietary factor that is distinct from calories or sweetness, could alter brain function and promote overeating.


"These findings suggest that limiting high-glycemic index carbohydrates like white bread and potatoes could help obese individuals reduce cravings and control the urge to overeat," says Ludwig.


Though the concept of food addiction remains provocative, the findings suggest that more interventional and observational studies be done. Additional research will hopefully inform clinicians about the subjective experience of food addiction, and how we can potentially treat these patients and regulate their weight.











August 17, 2013


Olive Oil Makes You Feel FullーScience daily



Reduced-fat food products are gaining in popularity. More and more people are choosing "light" products in an attempt to lose weight, or at least in the hope that they will not gain any pounds. But whether these products are effective or not is a matter of dispute: While it is true that they contain fewer calories, people tend to overcompensate by eating more if they do not feel full. Now a study has shown how "natural" oils and fats regulate the sensation of feeling full after eating, with olive oil leading the way. So what makes this oil so effective?

低脂肪食品の人気が高まっている。体重減を求めて、またはすくなくとも体重が増えないことを望んで、“ライト”製品を選択する人がますます増えている。しかし、これらの製品が効果的または非効果的であるかどうかは論争中である。ライト製品にはカロリーの含有は少ないことは事実であるが、人々は満腹感と感じなければもっと食べて、過剰に補うとすることが多い。今研究では、 “天然”油または脂肪が、露払い するオリーブ油で、食後に満腹感をどのように調節するかを示した。それでは、何がこのオイルを極めて効果的にさせるのですか?

leading the way露払い

Work groups at Technische Universität München (TUM) under Prof. Peter Schieberle and at the University of Vienna under Prof. Veronika Somoza studied four different edible fats and oils: Lard, butterfat, rapeseed oil and olive oil.Over a period of three months, the study participants ate 500 grams of low-fat yoghurt enriched with one of the four fats or oils every day -- as a supplement to their normal diet.

Peter Schieberle教授下のミュンヘン工科大学(TUM)およびVeronika Somoza教授下の作業グループは、ラード、バター脂肪、菜種油、およびオリーブ油の4つの異なる食用油脂と油を研究した。三ヶ月の期間にわたって、研究参加者は、通常の食事を補完するものとして、毎日4つの脂肪またはオイルの一つを強化した500g低脂肪ヨーグルトを食べた。

edible fats 食用油脂

"Olive oil had the biggest satiety effect," reports Prof. Peter Schieberle, Head of the TUM Chair of Food Chemistry and Director of the German Research Center for Food Chemistry. "The olive oil group showed a higher concentration of the satiety hormone serotonin in their blood. Subjectively speaking, these participants also reported that they found the olive oil yoghurt very filling." During the study period, no member of this group recorded an increase in their body fat percentage or their weight.

“オリーブオイル郡は最大の満腹効果があったと”、ミュンヘン工科大学(TUM)食品化学講座担当の首席およびドイツ食品化学研究センターの所長・Peter Schieberle,教授は報告している。”オリーブ油郡は血中の満腹ホルモン・セルトニン濃度が高くなったことを示した。主観的に言えば、これらの参加者もオリーブ油のヨーグルトは極めて満腹したと報告した。"研究期間中に、この郡のメンバーのだれもが体脂肪率や自分の体重の増加を記録しませんでした。


Aroma is the key


"The findings surprised us," admits Schieberle, "because rapeseed oil and olive oil contain similar fatty acids." The researchers decided to turn their attention to a completely different type of substance -- the aroma compounds in olive oil.In the second part of the study, one group was given yoghurt with olive oil aroma extracts and a control group was given plain yoghurt.The results were conclusive: The olive oil group's calorie intake remained the same, but the control group had been consuming an extra 176 kilocalories per day. Schieberle explains: "The aroma group adapted their eating habits -- but the control group participants were obviously not able to do likewise. We also found that in comparison to the other group, the control group had less of the satiety hormone serotonin in their blood."


Direct impact on blood sugar level


How long the feeling of satiety lasts after eating depends on a number of factors, but blood sugar level is particularly significant. The faster it falls, that is to say, the faster the somatic cells absorb glucose from the blood, the sooner the person will start to feel hungry again. In the next part of their study, the researchers investigated which of the aroma substances present in the oil are most effective at inhibiting glucose absorption.

食後の満腹感がどのくらい続くかは多くの要因に依存しますが、血糖値は特に重要である。血糖値が早く下がることは、すなわち、 体細胞が血液からグルコースを早く吸収すればするほど、すぐに人々は再び空腹感を感じはじめるだろう。それらの研究次の部分で、研究者達はオリーブ油に存在するどの芳香物質がグルコース吸収阻害にもっと有効的であるかを調査した。

somatic cells 体細胞
glucose グルコース

The researchers used olive oils from Spain, Greece, Italy and Australia for their study.
The research team managed to identify two substances that reduce the absorption of glucose from the blood in liver cells: Hexanal and E2-Hexenal. They also discovered that Italian olive oil contained larger amounts of the two aroma compounds.


Hexanal ヘキサナール(青葉アルデヒドともいい香料として用いる)

"Our findings show that aroma is capable of regulating satiety," concludes Schieberle. "We hope that this work will pave the way for the development of more effective reduced-fat food products that are nonetheless satiating."

“私たちの研究結果は香りが腹感を調節することができることを示していると、Schieberleは結論付けています。 私たちは、満腹にさせるのにかかわらず、最も効果的に脂肪減少させる食品開発への道を開くことを願っています。"














August 12, 2013


Do Cells in the Blood, Heart and Lungs Smell the Food We Eat?


Science Daily より

In a discovery suggesting that odors may have a far more important role in life than previously believed, scientists have found that heart, blood, lung and other cells in the body have the same receptors for sensing odors that exist in the nose. It opens the door to questions about whether the heart, for instance, "smells" that fresh-brewed cup of coffee or cinnamon bun, according to the research leader, who spoke in New Orleans on April 7 at the 245th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.


Peter Schieberle, Ph.D., an international authority on food chemistry and technology, explained that scientists thought that the nose had a monopoly on olfactory receptors. Located on special cells in the mucus-covered olfactory epithelium in the back of the nose, olfactory receptors are docking ports for the airborne chemical compounds responsible for the smell of food and other substances. Those molecules connect with the receptors, triggering a chain of biochemical events that register in the brain as specific odors. But discovery of olfactory receptors on other, non-olfactory cells came as a surprise.

科学者は鼻が嗅覚受容体を独占していたと思っていることを、食品化学と技術に関する国際的権威者・Peter Schieberle, Ph.D博士が説明した。鼻の奥に粘液で覆われた嗅上皮の特殊な細胞に位置し、嗅覚受容体は食品および他の物質の匂いの元になる大気浮遊化学化合物用の結合ポートである。これらの分子は受容体と結合し、特定の匂いとして脳に登録される一連の生化学的変化を引き起こす。他の非嗅覚細胞での嗅覚受容体の発見は驚きだった。


olfactory epithelium 嗅上皮

"Our team recently discovered that blood cells -- not only cells in the nose -- have odorant receptors," said Schieberle. "In the nose, these so-called receptors sense substances called odorants and translate them into an aroma that we interpret as pleasing or not pleasing in the brain. But surprisingly, there is growing evidence that also the heart, the lungs and many other non-olfactory organs have these receptors. And once a food is eaten, its components move from the stomach into the bloodstream. But does this mean that, for instance, the heart 'smells' the steak you just ate? We don't know the answer to that question."


His team recently found that primary blood cells isolated from human blood samples are attracted to the odorant molecules responsible for producing a certain aroma. Schieberle described one experiment in which scientists put an attractant odorant compound on one side of a partitioned multi-well chamber, and blood cells on the other side. The blood cells moved toward the odor.


multiwell 多坑井; 多重井戸型

"Once odor components are inside the body, however, it is unclear whether they are functioning in the same way as they do in the nose," he stated. "But we would like to find out."Schieberle's group and colleagues at the Technical University of Munich work in a field termed "sensomics," which focuses on understanding exactly how the mouth and the nose sense key aroma, taste and texture compounds in foods, especially comfort foods like chocolate and roasted coffee.

“一度匂い成分が体内に入ると、しかしながら、それらの成分が鼻で行われると同様に機能するかどうかは明らかではないです。”と彼は述べた。 “しかし、私たちは解明したいと思っています。”ミュンヘン工科大学研究でSchieberleのグループらは“感覚的手法”と呼ばれる分野で研究していて、その感覚的手法は、特にチョコレートおよび焙煎コーヒーのような癒しの食べ物のカギになる匂い、味覚、歯ごたえの成分を口および鼻がどのように感じるかにフォーカスしてます。

sensomics 感覚的手法

For example, baked beans and beans in foods like chili provide a "full," rich mouth-feel. Adding the component of beans responsible for this texture to another food could give it the same sensation in the mouth, he explained. Natural components also can interact with substances in foods to create new sensations.


chili チリ

The researchers use sensomics to better understand why foods taste, feel and smell appetizing or unappetizing. They use laboratory instruments to pick apart the chemical components. They then put those components together in different combinations and give these versions to human taste-testers who evaluate the foods. In this way, they discovered that although coffee contains 1,000 potential odor components, only 25 actually interact with an odor receptor in the nose and are smelled.


"Receptors help us sense flavors and aromas in the mouth and nose," said Schieberle. "These receptors are called G-protein-coupled receptors, and they were the topic of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2012. They translate these sensations into a perception in the brain telling us about the qualities of a food." Odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system also were the topic of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Medicine.


Of the total of around 1,000 receptors in the human body, about 800 of these are G-protein-coupled receptors, he said. Half of these G-protein-coupled receptors sense and translate aromas. But only 27 taste receptors exist. And although much research in the food industry has gone into identifying food components, little effort has focused on the tying those components to flavor perceptions until now, he said.













August 08, 2013

アロマセラピスト&精神科医(2)Robert Tisserand Blog I’m just sayingより

Florian Birkmayer: aromatherapists & psychiatrist


上記記事はRobert Tisserand氏のBlog I’m just sayingからです。

What type of complaints do you see most?


The most common complaints I see are related to traumic experiences, as well as anxiety, depression, insomnia and side-effects from medications.


traumatic experiences 外傷的体験

Do you mostly use single oils or blends? Why?

あなたは主に単品精油またはブレンド精油を使用しますか? 何故?

I use both single oils as well as blends of up to four or five oils. In my psychiatric practice I’ve met many clients that are on multiple medications, which increases the chance of drug interactions and side effects and one of my core approaches is to simplify medication regimens as much as possible. Similarly when I use oils I try to use a minimum number – it’s more elegant and it’s gentler on the client’s brain.


multiple medications 多重薬剤
regimen 治療計画

Do you allow some clients to pick their own oil or blend?


Most of the oils and blends I offer are customized for the individual client with input from them. During a visit, I select a few oils that I feel might be helpful and let the clients smell them and choose the oils that agree with them. The olfactory nerves go directly to the limbic system, which is the part of the brain that processes emotions, and thus how a client reacts to a smell to me is an indication of what their limbic system may need at that time.


What do you hope for in terms of the effects of the oils?


There are many specific effects related to sleep, anxiety, mood, but above all I hope to restore a client’s sense of self-efficacy, so they can cope better with their lives and that the oils become ‘tools in their toolbox of coping skills.’


What are some of your favorites, and what do you mostly use them for?


I have many favorites, but recently I’ve been particularly fond of a simple combination of melissa (lemon balm) and palo santo essential oils which I have given several clients with anxiety and trauma-related issues and it appears to allow people to center themselves and let go of feeling overwhelmed.


Can you describe one or two of your cases where essential oils have played a major role in mental health improvement?


I have a simple blend that I call Sleep Oil that I developed and started using for myself and then shared with colleagues and then with clients – insomnia is a very common problem – and the response has been overwhelming. People are always asking me for more Sleep Oil, giving it to relatives and raving about it. One of the cool things about using this is that it’s applied to the skin. Many people are used to having to ingest something, a medication or a supplement, to get help with insomnia, so when they use Sleep Oil, they unlearn that they need to ingest something to sleep and that goes a long way towards restoring a natural sleep pattern.


Another example: As you may know, some psychiatric medications cause sexual side effects, which can be very distressing. I’ve had success with several clients in overcoming these side effects by using ylang-ylang diluted in a carrier oil and topically applied.


So how exactly are your essential oils used – does it always involve topical application? To skin?

それで、どのように正確にあなた精油は使用されるのですか、それは常に局所塗布が関与するのですか? 皮膚に?

I’ve been using topical application, which I tell clients to think of as anointing themselves as well as sprays which I tell clients to consider their ‘signature scent’.


Apart from treating clients, what are some of your other activities?


One of the goals of The Birkmayer Institute is to offer seminars on a wide range of holistic topics, including aromatherapy. I’ve been teaching a monthly seminar on C.G. Jung’s Red Book for the past year, which has been a remarkable journey. Apart from essential oils and Jung, my greatest passion is equine assisted therapy and I have been blessed that my relationship to horses has gotten deeper and more profound through providing equine assisted therapy and experiencing the healing power of horses. Several times a year, I host a retreat for healers called ‘Horses Healing Healers.’Do you see any signs that conventional medicine is becoming any more open to the use of unconventional therapy, especially essential oils? Could aromatherapy transform psychiatry?


c.g. jung red book カール・グスタフ・ユングの赤の書
equine 馬
equine assisted therapy 乗馬療法
conventional medicine 伝統医学

The clients are very eager for new, more gentle and transformative approaches. However, the field of psychiatry acts reserved and skeptical, even more than providers in other medical specialties, at least on the surface. In private I’ve had several colleagues, especially nurses but also a few physicians, express great interest. My dream is to organize a conference on holistic – especially aromatic – psychiatry in the next couple years, as I suspect there’s a lot of hunger for knowledge.


transformative approach.変容的アプローチ

Dr. Birkmayer received his B.A. from Princeton University and his M.D. from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. He completed his psychiatry residency at the University of New Mexico. He has previously served as the director of the Dual Diagnosis Clinic at University of New Mexico Psychiatric Center and as the director of the Substance Use Disorders program at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Albuquerque, NM. He was invited to be a full member of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. He has a long-standing commitment to working with the underserved, e.g. working with Na’anizhozhi Center Inc., a Navajo-tradition based detox and rehab center in Gallup, NM and providing tele-psychiatry to underserved areas. He views himself as a bridge-builder between different medical worlds and works closely and respectfully with a wide range of healers.

ビルクマイアー博士は、プリンストン大学で学士号およびコロンビア医科大学で医学博士を受け取った。彼はニューメキシコ大学で精神科のレジデント修練を終了した。以前、彼はニューメキシコ大学精神医療センターの二重診断クリニックディレクターとしておよびニューメキシコ州、アルバカーキの退役軍人医療センターで物質使用障害治療プログラムのディレクターとして務めました。彼は精神医学発展の学術団体の成会員になるよう招待された。彼は恵まれていない人々と一緒に働くことに長年コミットをしてきた。例えば、ニューメキシコ州、ギャラップのナバホ族伝統に基づく解毒・リハビリセンター、Na’anizhozhi Center Incで働き、恵まれない地域に遠隔精神医療を提供しています。彼は、様々な医学世界と幅広いヒーラーと緊密かつ尊厳のあるワークとの橋渡し役として見てる。

Substance Use Disorders program 物質使用障害治療プログラム
dual diagnosis 二重診断 
二重診断はDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders“ 精神障害の診断と統計の手引き”に基づき行われる。


アロマセラピスト&精神科医(1)Robert Tisserand Blog: I’m just sayingより





August 05, 2013


A review of methionine dependency and the role of methionine restriction in cancer growth control and life-span extension.


methionine restriction メチオニン制限


cancer Treat Rev. 2012 Oct;38(6):726-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2012.01.004. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

cancer treatment reviews がん治療レビュー

Cavuoto P, Fenech MF.

CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia.



Methionine is an essential amino acid with many key roles in mammalian metabolism such as protein synthesis, methylation of DNA and polyamine synthesis. Restriction of methionine may be an important strategy in cancer growth control particularly in cancers that exhibit dependence on methionine for survival and proliferation.


polyamine ポリアミン
mammalian metabolism 哺乳類代謝

Methionine dependence in cancer may be due to one or a combination of deletions, polymorphisms or alterations in expression of genes in the methionine de novo and salvage pathways. Cancer cells with these defects are unable to regenerate methionine via these pathways.


polymorphisms 遺伝子多型
de novo pathway新生経路
salvage pathway:サルベージ経路(ヌクレオチド(プリンとピリミジン)の分解経路の中間体から再びヌクレオチドを合成する経路である。)

Defects in the metabolism of folate may also contribute to the methionine dependence phenotype in cancer. Selective killing of methionine dependent cancer cells in co-culture with normal cells has been demonstrated using culture media deficient in methionine. Several animal studies utilizing a methionine restricted diet have reported inhibition of cancer growth and extension of a healthy life-span.


Selective killing of cancer cells がん細胞の選択的殺作用

In humans, vegan diets, which can be low in methionine, may prove to be a useful nutritional strategy in cancer growth control. The development of methioninase which depletes circulating levels of methionine may be another useful strategy in limiting cancer growth. The application of nutritional methionine restriction and methioninase in combination with chemotherapeutic regimens is the current focus of clinical studies.


vegan diet 菜食
methioninase メチオニナーゼ
chemotherapeutic regimens 化学療法




癌細胞の中にはメチオニン存在下でないと増殖しないものがあり・メチオニン依存性という現象として知られている。メチオニンは必須アミノ酸であり、食物からの供給が必要である。しかしながら、細胞内にはメチオニン・サルベージ経路が存在し、非小細胞肺癌の約40%で欠損している酵素methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP)が重要な役割を果たしてい。MTAP欠損肺癌は『メチオニン依存性』であると予想されるので、本萌芽研究では、メチオニン欠乏状態が抗癌剤の抗腫瘍効果を増強させるかどうかの検討を行った。





August 02, 2013


Milk and linear growth: programming of the igf-I axis and implication for health in adulthood.


linear growth:直線的増殖; 線形成長
igf-I axis:インスリン様成長因子(IGF)軸


Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2011;67:79-97. doi: 10.1159/000325577. Epub 2011 Feb 16.

ネスル栄養ワークショップ 小児科プログラム

Pediatric 小児科(学)の

Martin RM, Holly JM, Gunnell D.


Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.




There is increasing awareness that childhood circumstances influence disease risk in adulthood. As well as being strongly influenced by genes/genetic factors, stature acts as a marker for early-life exposures, such as diet, and is associated with risk of several chronic diseases in adulthood.


Stature is also a marker for levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in childhood. Levels of IGF-I are nutritionally regulated and are therefore modifiable. Milk intake in childhood and in adulthood is positively associated with higher levels of circulating IGF-I and, in children, higher circulating IGF-I promotes linear growth. Studies conducted by our team and others, however, indicate that the effect of milk is complicated because consumption in childhood appears to have long-term, programming effects which are opposite to the immediate effects of consuming milk.


Specifically, studies suggest that the long-term effect of higher levels of milk intake in early childhood is opposite to the expected short-term effect, because milk intake in early-life is inversely associated with IGF-I levels throughout adult life. We hypothesize that this long-term programming effect is via a resetting of pituitary control in response to raised levels of IGF-I in childhood. Such a programming effect of milk intake in early life could potentially have implications for cancer and ischemic heart disease risk many years later.

幼児期の高レベル牛乳摂取の長期的効果が予想される短期的効果と逆であることを研究が示唆している。なぜならば、幼児期の牛乳摂取が成人期を通してのIGF-I 濃度と逆に関係していることである。この長期的プログラミング効果は幼児の高濃度IGF-Iに反応して、脳下垂体制御の再設定を介してであると私たちは仮説をした。幼児期のそのような牛乳摂取によるプログラミング効果は何年後にがんおよび虚血性心疾患のリスクに対して潜在的に影響を及ぼすだろう。

pituitary 脳下垂体
ischemic heart disease 虚血性心疾患



Milk is Food for Neonates: Studies of Its Effects on IGF-I in Population Cohorts


Neonate新生児 《生後 28 日以内の幼児》.

Jeff Holly, PhD

More milk consumption is associated with increased serum IGF-I levels in subjects from childhood through to old age. This is consistent with the known effects of protein intake on hepatic IGF-I expression and the effects of amino acid intake on pituitary GH secretion.


serum IGF-I levels 血清IGF-1濃度
hepatic IGF-I expression 肝臓IGF‐I発現
pituitary GH secretion 下垂体成長ホルモン分泌

In contrast we have found that increased milk intake in childhood has a long-term programming effect that acts in the opposite manner resulting in lower IGF-I levels throughout adult life. Such programming can occur early as breast feeding also results in higher IGF-I levels throughout later life, again in the opposite manner to its acute effects. The consequences of milk intake in childhood therefore have to be interpreted in terms of both the acute affects and the long-term consequences which can be very different.



Both low and high serum IGF-I levels associate with cancer mortality in older men.


インスリン様成長因子 ウィキペディアより



II. インスリン様成長因子I (IGF-I)遺伝子の転写制御機構の解析








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