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March 30, 2014


Where Alzheimer's starts and how it spreads・Science daily




Alzheimer's disease starts in the entorhinal cortex (yellow). Using fMRI in mouse (left) and human (right) brains, the researchers provide evidence that the disease spreads from the entohrinal cortex (yellow) to other cortical regions (red) -- the perirhinal cortex and posterior parietal cortex.


entorhinal cortex 嗅内皮質
cortical regions 皮質領域
perirhinal cortex 嗅周皮質
posterior parietal cortex 後部頭頂皮質
parietal cortex 頭頂皮質

Using high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) imaging in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in mouse models of the disease, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) researchers have clarified three fundamental issues about Alzheimer's: where it starts, why it starts there, and how it spreads. In addition to advancing understanding of Alzheimer's, the findings could improve early detection of the disease, when drugs may be most effective. The study was published today in the online edition of the journal Nature Neuroscience.

アルツハイマー病患者と病気のマウスモデルで高解像度機能的MRI (fMRI)イメージングを用いて、コロンビア大学医療センター(CUMC)の研究者は、アルツハイマー病についての3つの基本的な問題を明らかにした:アルツハイマー病がどこから始まり、何故そこから始まるのか、そしてどのようにして広がるのか。アルツハイマー病の理解を進めることに加えて、研究結果は薬剤が最も効果的であるかしれない、病気の早期検知を改善することができるだろう。

"It has been known for years that Alzheimer's starts in a brain region known as the entorhinal cortex," said co-senior author Scott A. Small, MD, Boris and Rose Katz Professor of Neurology, professor of radiology, and director of the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. "But this study is the first to show in living patients that it begins specifically in the lateral entorhinal cortex, or LEC. The LEC is considered to be a gateway to the hippocampus, which plays a key role in the consolidation of long-term memory, among other functions. If the LEC is affected, other aspects of the hippocampus will also be affected."

アルツハイマー病は嗅内皮質として知られている脳の領域ではじまることは長年知られていいますと、神経学のMD, Boris and Rose Katz教授、放射線医学の教授、および上席著者Scott A. Small, MD, Borisおよびアルツハイマー病研究センター所長、上席著者Scott A. Small, MDは述べた。“本研究は、アルツハイマー病は外側嗅内皮質、またはLECで特異的に始まることを生きている患者で最初に示したことになります。外側嗅内皮質は海馬の入り口として考えられていて、それは他の機能の中で、長期記憶の固定において重用な役割を果たします。外側嗅内皮質が影響を受けるならば、海馬の他の部分も影響を受けるだろう。

Neurology 神経学
radiology 放射線医学
lateral entorhinal cortex外側嗅内皮質
long-term memory 長期記憶

The study also shows that, over time, Alzheimer's spreads from the LEC directly to other areas of the cerebral cortex, in particular, the parietal cortex, a brain region involved in various functions, including spatial orientation and navigation. The researchers suspect that Alzheimer's spreads "functionally," that is, by compromising the function of neurons in the LEC, which then compromises the integrity of neurons in adjoining areas.


cerebral cortex 大脳皮質.
spatial orientation 空間定位
spatial navigation 空間進行

A third major finding of the study is that LEC dysfunction occurs when changes in tau and amyloid precursor protein (APP) co-exist. "The LEC is especially vulnerable to Alzheimer's because it normally accumulates tau, which sensitizes the LEC to the accumulation of APP. Together, these two proteins damage neurons in the LEC, setting the stage for Alzheimer's," said co-senior author Karen E. Duff, PhD, professor of pathology and cell biology (in psychiatry and in the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain) at CUMC and at the New York State Psychiatric Institute.

研究の三つ目の大きな発見は、外側嗅内皮質(LEC)の機能障害はタウタンパク質変化とアミロイド前駆体タンパク質(APP)が共存するときに発生する。外側嗅内皮質(LEC)は特にアルツハイマー病に脆弱です、なぜならば、それはアミロイド前駆体タンパク質(APP.)の蓄積に対して外側嗅内皮質(LEC)を敏感にさせるタウタンパク質を通常蓄積する。一緒に、これらの2つのタンパク質は外側嗅内皮質(LEC)の神経を損傷させ、アルツハイマー病の舞台を設定すると、コロンビア大学医療センターおよびニューヨーク州立精神医学研究所で病理学および細胞生物学(精神医学とアルツハイマー病と加齢脳に関するタウブ研究所において)の教授で共著者のKaren E. Duff, PhDは述べた。

amyloid precursor protein (APP) アミロイド前駆体タンパク質
aging brain加齢脳
Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain
Columbia University Medical Center(CUMC):コロンビア大学医療センター
New York State Psychiatric Institute:ニューヨーク州立精神医学研究所

In the study, the researchers used a high-resolution variant of fMRI to map metabolic defects in the brains of 96 adults enrolled in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). All of the adults were free of dementia at the time of enrollment.

本研究で、研究者はfMRI高解像度の画像を用いて、ワシントン・ハイツ、インウッド コロンビア老化プロジェクトに登録されている成人96人の脳の代謝障害を画像化した。全ての成人は登録した時点ではアルツハイマー病はなかった。

a high-resolution variant 高解像度の画像

"Dr. Richard Mayeux's WHICAP study enables us to follow a large group of healthy elderly individuals, some of whom have gone on to develop Alzheimer's disease," said Dr. Small. "This study has given us a unique opportunity to image and characterize patients with Alzheimer's in its earliest, preclinical stage."

"Dr. Richard Mayeux'sのWHICAP研究は、高齢者の幾人かはすでにアルツハイマー病の発症に進んだ大規模な健康な高齢者達を追跡することを可能にしていますと、Dr. Smalは述べた。「この研究は、アルツハイマー病の初期、前臨床段階での患者を画像化して特徴づけるため、私たちにまたとない機会を与えてくれた。」

preclinical stage 発症前段階

The 96 adults were followed for an average of 3.5 years, at which time 12 individuals were found to have progressed to mild Alzheimer's disease. An analysis of the baseline fMRI images of those 12 individuals found significant decreases in cerebral blood volume (CBV) -- a measure of metabolic activity -- in the LEC compared with that of the 84 adults who were free of dementia.


mild Alzheimer's disease 軽度アルツハイマー病
cerebral blood volume (CBV) 脳血液量(CBV)

A second part of the study addressed the role of tau and APP in LEC dysfunction. While previous studies have suggested that entorhinal cortex dysfunction is associated with both tau and APP abnormalities, it was not known how these proteins interact to drive this dysfunction, particularly in preclinical Alzheimer's.


Tau protein: タウタンパク質
preclinical Alzheimer's 前臨床アルツハイマー病

To answer this question, explained first author Usman Khan, an MD-PhD student based in Dr. Small's lab, the team created three mouse models, one with elevated levels of tau in the LEC, one with elevated levels of APP, and one with elevated levels of both proteins. The researchers found that the LEC dysfunction occurred only in the mice with both tau and APP.

この問題に答えるために、Dr. Small'sの研究室を拠点にしている筆頭著者Usman Khan, an MD-PhDの学生は説明して、チームは3つのマウスモデルを作った。外側嗅内皮質(LEC)でタウタンパク質濃度が上昇したマウス、アミロイド前駆体タンパク質(APP.)濃度が上昇したマウス、両方のタンパク質が上昇したマウス。研究者は外側嗅内皮質(LEC)機能障害がタウタンパク質濃度およびアミロイド前駆体タンパク質(APP.)濃度の両方が上昇したマウスだけに発生したことを解明した。

The study has implications for both research and treatment. "Now that we've pinpointed where Alzheimer's starts, and shown that those changes are observable using fMRI, we may be able to detect Alzheimer's at its earliest preclinical stage, when the disease might be more treatable and before it spreads to other brain regions," said Dr. Small. In addition, say the researchers, the new imaging method could be used to assess the efficacy of promising Alzheimer's drugs during the disease's early stages.

本研究は研究と治療に関係している。今や、私たちはアルツハイマー病がどこから始まるかを正確に指摘して、これらの変化がfMRIを使用して観察可能であることを示し、アルツハイマー病がより治療可能な時および病気が他の脳領域に広がる前の早期前臨床段階で私たちがアルツハイマー病を検出することができるかも知れないと、Dr. Smallは述べた。さらに、研究者は述べています。新画像方式がアルツハイマー病の初期段階で有望なアルツハイマー薬剤の有効性を評価するために使用することができるだろう。

The paper is titled, "Molecular drivers and cortical spread of lateral entorhinal cortex dysfunction in preclinical Alzheimer's disease."
















March 26, 2014


Rosemary Aroma May Help You Remember to Do Things・Science daily



The aroma of rosemary essential oil may improve prospective memory in healthy adults.


prospective memory 展望的記憶

This is the finding of a study conducted by Jemma McCready and Dr Mark Moss from the University of Northumbria. The findings presented today, Tuesday 9 April, at the Annual Conference of the British Psychological Society in Harrogate, suggest that this essential oil may enhance the ability to remember events and to remember to complete tasks at particular times in the future.

これは英国ノーザンブリア大学のJemma McCreadyおよびDr Mark Mosによって行われた研究の結果です。研究結果はハロゲートの英国心理学会の年次会議で4月9日火曜日に提示され、このローズマリー精油が出来事を覚えることや将来的に特定の時間で物事を完了することを覚えておく能力を高めることを示唆している。

Dr Mark Moss said: "We wanted to build on our previous research that indicated rosemary aroma improved long-term memory and mental arithmetic. In this study we focused on prospective memory, which involves the ability to remember events that will occur in the future and to remember to complete tasks at particular times this is critical for everyday functioning. For example when someone needs to remember to post a birthday card or to take medication at a particular time."

Dr Mark Mossは述べた:ローズマリーの香りが長期記憶および暗算の改善を示した以前の研究を構築することを望んでいた。本研究で、私たちは展望的記憶に焦点をあて、そのことは将来的に起こるだろう物事を覚えておくこと、かつ毎日のことが機能するのに必須である特定の時間に仕事を完了することを覚えておくことの能力を含んでいます。例えば、だれかがバースデーカードをポストに投函することや特定な時間に薬を服用することを覚えておくことが必要な場合です。

mental arithmetic 暗算

Rosemary essential oil was diffused in to a testing room by placing four drops on an aroma stream fan diffuser and switching this on five minutes before the participants entered the room. Sixty-six people took part in the study and were randomly allocated to either the rosemary-scented room or another room with no scent.


In each room participants completed a test designed to assess their prospective memory functions. This included tasks such as hiding objects and asking participants to find them at the end of the test and instructing them to pass a specified object to the researcher at a particular time. All the tasks had to be done with no prompting. If the task was not performed then different degrees of prompting were used. The more prompting that was used the lower the score. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing their mood.


Participants' blood was also analysed to see if performance levels and changes in mood following exposure to the rosemary aroma were related to concentrations of a compound (1,8-cineole) present in the blood. The compound is also found in the essential oil of rosemary and has previously been shown to act on the biochemical systems that underpin memory.


biochemical systems 生化学系

The results showed that participants in the rosemary-scented room performed better on the prospective memory tasks than the participants in the room with no scent. This was the case for remembering events and remembering to complete tasks at particular times.

Jemma McCready explained: "There was no link between the participants' mood and memory. This suggests performance is not influenced as a consequence of changes in alertness or arousal."

Jemma McCreadyは説明した:“参加者”の気分と記憶との結びつきはなかった。このことはパフォーマンスが覚醒または目覚めさせることの変化の結果として影響を受けないことを示唆しています。

alertness 覚醒
arousal 目覚めせること,覚醒

The results from the blood analysis found that significantly greater amounts of 1,8-cineole were present in the plasma of those in the rosemary scented room, suggesting that the influence of aroma was mediated pharmacologically.


Jemma McCready said: "These findings may have implications for treating individuals with memory impairments. It supports our previous research indicating that the aroma of rosemary essential oil can enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults, here extending to the ability to remember events and to complete tasks in the future. Remembering when and where to go and for what reasons underpins everything we do, and we all suffer minor failings that can be frustrating and sometimes dangerous.
Further research is needed to investigate if this treatment is useful for older adults who have experienced memory decline."

Jemma McCreadyは述べた:“これらの研究結果は記憶障害のある各人を治療するために意味があるかもしれない。それは、ローズマリー精油の芳香が健康な成人の認知機能を高めることができることを示している私たちの研究を支持して、ここで、物事を覚えていて将来にそのことを完了するための能力を延ばすことをした。何のためにいつ、どこに行くかを覚えておくことは私たちがすることを確認することになって、私たち全てはイライラして、何か危険なようになりうる些細なことに苦しんだ。この治療が記憶減退を経験した高齢者にとって有用であるかを調査するために更なる研究が必要である。







March 19, 2014


Healthy midlife diet may prevent dementia later・Science daily



Healthy dietary choices in midlife may prevent dementia in later years, according a doctoral thesis. The results showed that those who ate the healthiest diet at the average age of 50 had an almost 90 per cent lower risk of dementia in a 14-year follow-up study than those whose diet was the least healthy. The study was the first in the world to investigate the relationship between a healthy diet as early as in midlife and the risk of developing dementia later on.


doctoral thesis 博士論文

The researchers assessed the link between diet and dementia using a healthy diet index based on the consumption of a variety of foods.Vegetables, berries and fruits, fish and unsaturated fats from milk products and spreads were some of the healthy components, whereas sausages, eggs, sweets, sugary drinks, salty fish and saturated fats from milk products and spreads were indicated as unhealthy.


healthy diet index 健康的な食事指数

Previous studies on diet and dementia have mainly focused on the impact of single dietary components. "But nobody's diet is based on one single food, and there may be interactions between nutrients, so it makes more sense to look at the entire dietary pattern," says Ms Marjo Eskelinen, MSc, who presented the results in her doctoral thesis in the field of neurology.

食事と認知症に関する以前の研究では単一食事成分の影響に主に焦点を当てていた。“しかし、誰の食事も単一食品に基づいていなくて、栄養分の間で相互作用があるかもしれないので、それで、全食品パターンを見るのがより理に適っていますと神経学野の博士論文で結果を提出した理学修士、Ms Marjo Eskelinen,は述べています。

M.Sc.(Master of Science) 理学修士、

Higher intake of saturated fats linked to poorer cognitive functions and increased risk of dementia


The impact of dietary fats on cognitive performance and the risk of dementia was studied separately as well. A high intake of saturated fats was linked to poorer cognitive and memory functions and to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment in a 21-year follow-up. It was also shown that a higher saturated fat intake was associated with an increased risk of dementia among those carrying a genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease, the epsilon 4 variant of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene. "Even those who are genetically susceptible can at least delay the onset of the disease by favouring vegetable oils, oil-based spreads and fatty fish in their diet," Ms Eskelinen says.

認知機能および認知症リスクに関する食事性脂肪のインパクトは同様に別々に研究された。飽和脂肪酸の高摂取は21年間のフォローアップで、認知および記憶の低下と軽度認知障害リスク増大と結びついていた。また、高飽和脂肪摂取は、アルツハイマー病の遺伝子的リスク要因であるアポリポタンパク質E(ApoE)遺伝子・E4 バリアントのキャリアーの人々の間で認知症リスク増大と関係していたことを示した。遺伝子的に病気に罹りやすい人々でさえも食事で植物油、油をベースにしたスプレッドや脂肪の多い魚を好むことにより、疾患の発症を遅らせることができるとMS Eskelinenは述べています。

mild cognitive impairment 軽度認知障害
apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene アポリポタンパク質E(ApoE)遺伝子

In addition, those consuming 3 to 5 cups of coffee daily had a smaller risk of dementia than those consuming less or more.





アポリポプロテインE(apo E)
apo E4はアルツハイマー病の危険因子として知られており


西洋食(高飽和脂肪・精製炭水化物食HFS 食)のヒト認知および脳への影響







March 07, 2014


Effects of Inhaled Rosemary Oil on Subjective Feelings and Activities of the Nervous System



Winai Sayorwan,1 Nijsiri Ruangrungsi,1 Teerut Piriyapunyporn,2 Tapanee Hongratanaworakit,3 Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi,2,4 and Vorasith Siripornpanich*,4



Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects’ feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system.


test subjects 被験者

Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (ANS) recording. This consisted of measurements of skin temperature; heart rate; respiratory rate; blood pressure; evaluations of the subjects’ mood states; and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the pre-, during treatment, and post-rosemary inhalation periods as compared with control conditions.

20人の健康なボランティアは実験に参加した。すべての被験者は、自律神経系( ANS )の記録を取った。これは、対照の条件と比較して、皮膚温度、心拍数、呼吸数、血圧の測定、被験者の気分状態の評価、トリートメント前・中、およびローズマリー吸入期間後における脳波検査(EEG)の記録から成り立っています。

electroencephalography (EEG) 脳波検査

Our results showed significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate after rosemary oil inhalation. After the inhalation treatments, subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt “fresher”.


The analysis of EEGs showed a reduction in the power of alpha1 (8–10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11–12.99 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increment in the beta wave (13–30 Hz) power was observed in the anterior region of the brain.

脳波検査分析はアルファルファ1波(8–10.99 Hz)パワーおよびアルファルファ2波(11–12.99 Hz)パワーの減少を示した。さらに、ベータ波(13–30 Hz) パワーの増加が脳の前領域で観察された。

anterior portion of the brain脳の前領域

These results confirm the stimulatory effects of rosemary oil and provide supporting evidence that brain wave activity, autonomic nervous system activity, as well as mood states are all affected by the inhalation of the rosemary oil.


Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis L., Electroencephalography, Alpha power, Autonomic nervous system, Mood state







March 05, 2014


Study Shows How Spirituality Could Help Your Brain



For people at high risk of depression because of a family history, spirituality may offer some protection for the brain, a new study hints.


Parts of the brain's outer layer, the cortex, were thicker in high-risk study participants who said religion or spirituality was "important" to them versus those who cared less about religion.


brain's outer layer 脳の外層
the cortex 皮質

"Our beliefs and our moods are reflected in our brain and with new imaging techniques we can begin to see this,"Myrna Weissman told Reuters Health. "The brain is an extraordinary organ. It not only controls, but is controlled by our moods."

私たちの信念や気分は脳の反映であって、新しい画像処理技術で、私たちはこのことを見ることができますとMyrna WeissmanはReuters Health.に語った。脳は驚異的な器官です。脳は制御するばかりでなくて、私たちの気分で制御されます。
imaging techniques:画像処理技術
Weissman, who worked on the new study, is a professor of psychiatry and epidemiology at Columbia Universityand chief of the Clinical-Genetic Epidemiology department at New York State Psychiatric institute.

psychiatry 精神医学
epidemiology 疫学

While the new study suggests a link between brain thickness and religiosity or spirituality, it cannot say that thicker brain regions cause people to be religious or spiritual, Weissman and her colleagues note in JAMA Psychiatry.


JAMA・The Journal of the American Medical Association:米国医師会雑誌

It might hint, however, that religiosity can enhance the brain's resilience against depression in a very physical way, they write.


Previously, the researchers had found that people who said they were religious or spiritual were at lower risk of depression. They also found that people at higher risk for depression had thinning cortices, compared to those with lower depression risk.


The cerebral cortex is the brain's outermost layer made of gray matter that forms the organ's characteristic folds. Certain areas of the cortex are important hubs of neural activity for processes such as sensory perception, language and emotion.


cerebral cortex 大脳皮質

For the new study, the researchers twice asked 103 adults between the ages of 18 and 54 how important religion or spirituality was to them and how often they attended religious services over a five-year period.

新研究のために、研究者は18~ 54歳までの103人に成人に、彼らにとって宗教またはスピリチュイアリティがどのくらい重要であって、5年間で礼拝に何度参加したかを尋ねた。

In addition to being asked about spirituality, the participants' brains were imaged once to see how thick their cortices were.


All the participants were the children or grandchildren of people who participated in an earlier study about depression. Some had a family history of depression, so they were considered to be at high risk for the disorder. Others with no history served as a comparison group.


Overall, the researchers found that the importance of religion or spirituality to an individual - but not church attendance - was tied to having a thicker cortex. The link was strongest among those at high risk of depression.


"What we're doing now is looking at the stability of it," Weissman said.


Her team is taking more images of the participants' brains to see whether the size of the cortex changes with their religiosity or spirituality.


"This is a way of replicating and validating the findings," she said. "That work is in process now."

“これは研究結果を複製して、検証する方法であると”彼女は述べた。 “その作業は現在進行中である。 "

Dr. Dan Blazer, the J.P. Gibbons Professor of Psychiatry at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, said the study is very interesting but is still exploratory.

ノースカロライナ州、ダーラム、デューク大学医療センター、精神医学教授のDr. Dan Blazer, the J.P. Gibbonsは研究は極めて興味深いですがまだ試験段階であると述べた。

"I think this tells us it's an area to look at," Blazer, who was not involved in the new study, said. "It's an area of interest but we have to be careful."

“このことはそれが研究する分野であると私たちに教えていると思いますと”新研究に関与しなかったBlazerは述べた。”それは興味がる分野ですが、我々は注意する必要があります。 "

For example, he said there could be other areas of the brain linked to religion and spirituality. Also, spirituality may be a marker of something else, such as socioeconomic status.


socioeconomic status 社会・経済状態

Blazer added that it's an exciting time, because researchers are actively looking at links between the brain, religion and risk of depression.


"We've seen this field move from a time when there were virtually no studies done at all," he said.


Weissman said the mind and body are intimately connected.


"What this means therapeutically is hard to say," she added.



ハイリスク研究(あるいは、ハイリスク・ハイインパクト研究等とも呼ばれる)とは、研究目標が達成されるかどうかには高いリスクがあるが、成果が出るとインパクトがあり、 分野の進展に貢献するなど非常に大きな影響を与える可能性が高い研究
http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/html/hpaa200801/08060518/075/008.htm より






March 04, 2014





Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort.



However, geographic exposure to aluminum or silica from tap water was not associated with dementia. High consumption of aluminum from drinking water may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.









1986年にノルウエーで飲料水の水質と健康調査のなかではじめて、飲料水中のアルミニウムの量と痴呆に関係あるのではないかと言う速報を行った。英国の調査によると、CTなどによって脳血管性痴呆を除外し、アルツハイマー病と判定された患者の数を調べたところ、地域の水道水中のアルミニウム濃度が1リットル当たり0.11ミリグラム以上の地域は0.01ミリグラム以下の地域にくらべ、発症率が1.5倍高いという事実が判明した。飲料水中のアルミニウム濃度が高いほどアルツハイマー病になりやすいわけである。(ボケの原因を探る、黒田洋一郎著 岩波新書)



水のおいしさは、金属元素と深くかかわっている。カルシウム(CA)、カリウム(K)酸化ケイ素 (SiO2)はおいしい成分であるが、マグネシウム(Mg) 、硫酸基(SO2)はまずい成分である。(からだの中の元素の旅 吉里勝利著 ブルーバックス)











pH 値 :
4月 7.2, 6.8, 7.2
10月 7.3, 6.9 , 7.3


4月 0.97, 1.33, 0.82
10月 1.06, 1.65, 0.81

4月 0.8 ,0.8, 0.8
10月 0.7, 0.8, 0.7

4月 0.07, 0.04, 0.04,
10月 0.05, 0.03, 0.02

4月 0.02, 0.01, 0.02
10月 0.03, 0.01, 0.00

4月0.007, 0.010, 0.009
10月 0.013, 0.019, 0.005








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