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October 19, 2015

社会的疎外の痛み:「社会的痛み」によって活性化する身体的痛みの脳回路 Science dailyより

The pain of social exclusion: Physical pain brain circuits activated by 'social pain'


社会的疎外の痛み:「社会的痛み」によって活性化する身体的痛みの脳回路 Science dailyより

social exclusion 社会的疎外
Physical pain 身体的痛み
brain circuits 脳回路
social pain 社会的痛み

The distress caused by social stimuli (e.g., losing a friend, experiencing an injustice or more in general when a social bond is threatened) activates brain circuits related to physical pain: as observed in a study conducted by SISSA, this also applies when we experience this type of pain vicariously as an empathic response (when we see somebody else experiencing it).


empathic response 共感的反応

We would like to do without pain and yet without it we wouldn't be able to survive. Pain signals dangerous stimuli (internal or external) and guides our behaviour. Its ultimate goal is to prioritize escape, recovery and healing. That's why we feel it and why we're also good at detecting it in others. Pain in fact protects not only the individual but also his social bonds. The brain contains circuits related to the more physical aspects of pain and others related to affective aspects.As observed in a study just published by Giorgia Silani, Giovanni Novembre and Marco Zanon of the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) of Trieste, social pain activates some brain circuits of physical pain whether we feel it personally or when we experience it vicariously as an empathic response to other people's pain.

私たちは痛みなしで生きたいだろうし、痛みなしで、私たちは生き残ることができないだろう。痛みは危険性刺激(身体内または身体外)を知らせて、私たちの行動を導きます。その究極の目標は、逃避、回復および治癒の優先順位を決定することです。そんなわけで、私たちは痛みを感じ、また、私たちが他人の痛みを検知することに優れている理由なのです。実際の痛みは、個人を守るのだけでなくて、かれの社会的絆も守ります。脳はより多くの身体的側面の痛みおよび感情的側面に関連する他の痛みに関係する脳回路を内蔵しています。イタリア、トリエステ、大学院the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA)のGiorgia Silani, Giovanni Novembre およびMarco Zanonによって丁度発表された研究で観察されたように、私たちが痛みを個人的に感じるかどうか、または私たちが他の人の痛みに対して共感的反応として代理的に痛みを経験する場合に、社会的痛みは身体的痛みのある幾つかの脳回路を活性化します。

dangerous stimuli  危険性刺激

The study by Silani and colleagues is innovative since it adopted a more realistic experimental procedure than used in the past and compared behaviours and the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the same subjects, during tests involving both physical and social pain. "Classic experiments used a stylized procedure in which social exclusion situations were simulated by cartoons. We suspected that this simplification was excessive and likely to lead to systematic biases in data collection, so we used real people in videos."


The subjects took part in the experimental sessions simulating a ball tossing game, where one of the players was deliberately excluded by the others (condition of social pain). The player could be the subject herself or her assigned confederate. In another series of experiments the subject or her confederate were administered a mildly painful stimulus (condition of physical pain). When the subject was not personally the target of the stimulus, she could witness the entirety of her confederate's experience.


"Our data have shown that in conditions of social pain there is activation of an area traditionally associated with the sensory processing of physical pain, the posterior insular cortex," explains Silani. "This occurred both when the pain was experienced in first person and when the subject experienced it vicariously."


sensory processing 感覚処理
the posterior insular cortex 後部島皮質

"Our findings lend support to the theoretical model of empathy that explains involvement in other people's emotions by the fact that our representation is based on the representation of our own emotional experience in similar conditions" concludes Silani.


theoretical model 理論モデル


Study Illuminates the 'Pain' of Social Rejection Science dailyより


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