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January 30, 2019

気温が上がるにつれて、花の香りは少なくなります。Science dailyより

As temperatures rise, flowers emit less scent



The diverse and delicious fragrances of flowers brighten our days and inspire poetry. The more practical reason that flowers produce scent is to attract pollinating insects to the flowers' reproductive organs, thereby ensuring the continued existence of plant species. To do this, flowers assemble a mixture of dozens, and sometimes hundreds, of volatile substances from several biochemical groups.


pollinating insects 花粉媒介昆虫
reproductive organs生殖官
continued existence 存続
volatile substances 揮発性物質
biochemical 生化学的な

Scientists have known for some time that increasing temperatures associated with global climate change have a negative effect on plant growth. Expanding on this research, a Hebrew University of Jerusalem PhD student has shown that increases in ambient temperature also lead to a decrease in the production of floral scents.


global climate change 地球規模の気候変動
ambient temperature 周囲温度

"Increases in temperature associated with the changing global climate are interfering with plant-pollinator mutualism, an interaction facilitated mainly by floral color and scent," Alon Can'ani explained in his research.

地球規模の気候変動に関係する気温の上昇は、花の色および香りによって主に促進されている相互作用、植物・花粉媒介者の共生に干渉をしていると、Alon Can'aniは彼の研究で説明した。

pollinator 花粉媒介者
mutualism 共生

At the Hebrew University's Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Can'ani studies control mechanisms that allow plants to regulate their production of smell, is researching strategies to overcome the decrease in production of beneficial volatile substances, a process that requires a huge energy investment from plants.


During his work in the laboratory of Prof. Alexander Vainstein, in the Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in the Faculty of Agriculture, Can'ani discovered that Petunia plants grown at elevated temperature conditions are significantly defected in production and emission of scent compounds.

農業学部Robert H. Smith植物遺伝学研究所のAlexander Vainstein教授の研究室での研究中に、Can'aniは高温条件で栽培されたペチュニア植物は香りの化合物の生成および放出に大いに欠陥があることを発見した。

petunia ペチュニア

"In my study, I show that increasing ambient temperature leads to a decrease in phenylpropanoid-based floral scent production in two Petunia×hybrida varieties, P720 and Blue Spark, acclimated at 22/16 or 28/22 °C (day/night)," Can'ani said.

「私の研究では、周囲温度が上昇すると、22/16または28/22℃(昼夜)で順応している2種類のペチュニア×交配種、P720およびBlue Sparkでフェニルプロパノイドベースの花の香りの生成が減少することを示していますと」Can'aniは述べた。、

phenylpropanoid フェニルプロパノイド
hybrid varieties 交配種

This was linked to arrested expression and activity of proteins that facilitate biosynthesis of the compounds.Can'ani was awarded the Smith Vision Prize for his body of research, which included projects aimed at finding novel strategies that plants use in order to regulate, or fine-tune, the process of scent emission.


biosynthesis 生合成

Can'ani also demonstrated an approach to bypass this adverse effect, by expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana PAP1 gene, which boosts the production of scent regardless of the ambient temperature. This research was published in Plant, Cell & Environment.


Arabidopsis thaliana シロイヌナズナ

Can'ani also characterized the first gene (called PH4) that functions as a direct regulator of scent emission. When he manipulated the expression of this gene to a halt, Petunia flowers ceased to emit scent, but continued to produce it. Interestingly, this gene apparently serves as a switch between two crucial floral traits -- color and scent. This research was published in New Phytologist.


floral traits 花の形質

Currently, Can'ani is investigating a process called glycosylation, in which flowers conjugate a sugar molecule onto the scent compounds, thus rendering the scent non-volatile.


glycosylation グリコシル化





グリコシル化 (Glycosylation)は、タンパク質もしくは脂質へ糖類が付加する反応である。糖鎖付加(とうさふか)とも言う






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