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February 11, 2019


Effects of odor on emotion, with implications



Front Syst Neurosci. 2013; 7: 66.

Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience


Mikiko Kadohisa

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford Oxford, UK.




The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Human and animal studies show that odor perception is modulated by experience and/or physiological state (such as hunger), and that some odors can arouse emotion, and can lead to the recall of emotional memories.


odor perception 匂いの知覚

Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay.


gene-specified receptors 特異遺伝子受容体
glomeruli function 糸球体機能
olfactory bulb 嗅球
piriform cortex 梨状皮質
thalamic relay 視床中継

The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) which with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system which is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory.


orbitofrontal cortex  眼窩前頭皮質
long-term memory  長期記憶
episodic memory.エピソード記憶
entorhinal 嗅内

Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered.


possible implication 関与の可能性

Keywords: odor, emotion, amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex




システム神経科学(しすてむしんけいかがく、英: Systems neuroscience)は神経科学の下位分野で、覚醒し、行動する正常な生物の神経回路や神経システムの機能を研究する。システム神経科学は、神経細胞が結合してニューラル・ネットワークを作った時にどのようにふるまうのか (例えば、視覚や自発運動など) を研究する様々な分野の総称である。この分野では、神経科学者は異なる神経回路がどのようにして感覚情報を分析し、外的環境を認識し、意思決定を行い、運動を実行するかを研究している。システム神経科学に関心がある研究者は脳に対する分子神経科学や細胞神経科学的なアプローチと、行動神経科学や認知神経科学のおもな守備範囲である言語や、記憶、自己認識のような高次精神活動の間にある大きな溝に着目している。



entorhinal 嗅内を調べていたときに見つけた記事



エピソード記憶(エピソードきおく、episodic memory)とは、宣言的記憶の一部であり、イベント(事象)の記憶である。エピソード記憶には、時間や場所、そのときの感情が含まれる(感情は記憶の質に影響する)。自伝的記憶はエピソード記憶の一部である。エピソード記憶は意味記憶(事実と概念に関する記憶)と相互に関連している。エピソード記憶は物語にたとえることができる(Tulving, 1972)。




February 08, 2019





There is a fundamental truth in respect to the health of a human being, that all physical illness stems from the mind previously choosing fear. Some of these fears are ancient, a soul trait, and are therefore held within the Emotional Body of an individual’s soul. That can be one reason why the medical fraternity has difficulty understanding the mental causes for most physical illnesses. The cause of a disease can be literally from mind’s choices made during other lifetimes, with the soul now working through a specific fear in the current incarnation. Therefore, the original cause of why a person is experiencing a physical illness, can be quite elusive. But rest assured that consciousness and the reflective mirror that the physical body provides, is powerfully affected by negative thoughts created on the Mental Plane, where any idea or belief is possible, especially those that are illusory in nature and fear-based.


a soul trait 魂の特性
Emotional Body 情動体
medical fraternity 医師会
reflective mirror 反射鏡

As has been stated many times, doctors tend to ”doctor up” a person’s malady, rather than heal the original mental cause. That is because the effort to control the mind choosing fear is much more involved than just putting a cast on a broken leg, bandaging up a wound, or prescribing a drug like insulin. To really heal the situation, the patient and medical practitioner, need to address the emotional cause stemming from fearful thoughts created on the Mental Plane.

何度も述べたように、医師は元々の心の原因を癒すのではなく、人の病気を“手抜きする” 傾向があります。それは、恐れを選択する心を制御する努力は、単に骨折した足にギプスをすること、創傷の包帯またはインスリンのような薬を処方するよりもっとよりはるかに複雑になるからです。状況を本当に癒すために、患者と開業医はメンタルプレーン上に作られた恐れの思考から生じる情動的原因に取り組む必要があります。

doctor up ;不正をする
cast ギプス

One may say, “My disease is genetic, and therefore, it is out of my control.” This, in a way, is “victim mentality”.For any problematic genetic issue is there as a soul lesson to work through in the physical plane, and not just there as an accidental occurrence, or, “a mistake of nature”. The Universe is not so careless. The One Mind is in charge of reality more than that. Man’s view from his ego’s prospective, often thinks limitedly though.For he often can not imagine a force which plans everything down to the genetic and molecular level throughout the Animal, Plant and Rock Kingdoms. That ultimate level of creative power is beyond his ken.


genetic issue 遺伝的な問題
accidental occurrence偶発事件

What humanity fails to understand yet is that the genetic matrix that is created for each person’s incarnation is a planned sequence of events as well as a blueprint for a unique physical form that the soul wishes to manifest on its earthly journey in order to provide the most challenge to its consciousness. The programmed helix can offer up physical abilities or even certain limitations to test the self. It is these planned life structures and guidelines which are there to take advantage of the incarnation in order to achieve the most growth on the soul level.


Helix 螺旋

The DNA helix is akin to the programming technicians do now with “1’s” and “0’s” in the Computer Age.Biological mechanism, for instance, the human form, is programmed through the genetic matrix by those in the Higher Realms, which includes also input from the soul. The Spiritual Hierarchy has been programming biological entities for billions of years. They are quite adept at creating a multi-dimensional vehicle for the incarnating spirit.


Higher Realms 高次元領域
Spiritual Hierarchy スピリチュアル・ハイアラーキー
biological entities 生命体

A soul is an advanced consciousness that is ancient and wishes to work through certain mental and emotional issues during the human experience. That living unfoldment perfectly set for each person “seems unplanned, because it is all planned.” Within the planning there is of course a person’s free will which is always allowed in order to learn to make life-affirming choices within the prepared environment. And as well, the soul chooses what family or set of circumstances that it feels will challenge its most vulnerable areas in its consciousness.


life-affirming  人生を肯定している

Notice the six pointed star that the human being is standing upon. This ancient glyph, once called in history, the “Star of David”, symbolizes a proper flow of the communication pathways amongst the Mind, Heart and Body of the Higher and Lower Selves. This well-known glyph represents the soul and its physical manifestation, both working together in tandem represented by two triangles overlapping. This state of awareness that the symbol represents is a self-actualized human being.


six pointed star 六芒星
self-actualized 自己実現の

There is also one other truism about physicalization. No one is given a challenge that it cannot face and rise above. For it would be a waste of the soul’s time and energy, if any one life lesson was beyond the Lower Self’s grasp or level of achievement. So like any grade of school, a student is not given a task past its possible understanding.So is the way the loving Universe works, giving each and every conscious being what is its most perfect challenge in order to transcend the Self and the grip of fear.


physicalization 身体的表現
life lesson 人生の教訓
rise above. 〜を突破する

For it is not Heart or feelings which choose fear, the cause of all dis-ease. It is the mind and its mercurial thoughts which can imagine anything, often that which will not come to pass. When mind is in fear, it is immediately taking the consciousness out of what is called the “Eternal Now”. For thoughts of fear grow from often only an imagined future threat. Therefore, mind in fear takes itself out of the present moment and shifts to that which is not happening, a dream of the future that is negative or pessimistic.

Eternal Now 永遠の今

Meditative practices are meant to quiet that part of the mind which was created from thoughts of fear, eons ago on the soul level, the Human Ego. Ego judges things as good or bad, always weighing their value.Furthermore, this mentally separated self, is either choosing to fearfully repress the feminine aspect of feelings, thinking they are shameful, telling each person’s inner Eve to swallow rage, the symbolic red apple.Or, ego controls emotions which will only store a past negative experience, not allowing it to resolve, or free itself from the Emotional Body. Thus, those held emotions are not of the present, locking the consciousness into a state of denial.


eons ago 大昔

Fear of the past or future is time consciousness. Time does not exist. It is simply an illusion of the Mind locked in denial from the past, or imagining either positive or negative reality in the future. The past no longer exists and the future is in a continual flux of change depending upon the free will choices of all Spirits at any one moment. The only thing that really exists is the present moment, not those time period illusions created from the Mental Plane.



六芒星(ろくぼうせい、りくぼうせい)とは、星型多角形の一種で、六本の線分が交差する図形である。六角形の各辺を延長することでできる。六角星、六線星、星型六角形、ヘキサグラム (hexagram) ともいう。また、六芒星中にある六角形を抜いた形を六光星と呼ぶ[要出典]。





February 03, 2019


Essential oils to prevent the spread of flu - Tisserand Institute

インフルエンザ拡散を防ぐための精油 ティスランド・インスティテュートブログより


下記の記事は上記のTisserand Instituteのブログ記事の一部の項目を訳したものです。

Aromatic treatments suggested for home users


Influenza particles can spread by airborne droplets, close contact with an infected person, and contact with objects contaminated with the virus (Tesini 2018). Influenza particles can remain viable on objects for up to 48 hours (CDC), so effective sterilization of objects is an important step in preventing the spread of influenza. Current CDC guidelines suggest disinfecting objects with chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, soap, and alcohols (CDC). Ethanol is effective against most clinically relevant viruses, including influenza (Kampf 2017). Hydrogen peroxide has been shown to be effective against influenza and norovirus, when used on solid surfaces (Goyal et al. 2014). However, the efficacy of using these substances on porous surfaces is unclear. The development of chemicals that would be universal surface disinfectants is key to killing viruses in all settings. The use of essential oils to kill bacteria is established (Nazzaro et al 2013, Vasconcelos et al 2018), and evidence for their use to kill viruses is mounting. There is evidence that diffusion of essential oils is effective in eliminating airborne bacteria and viruses, but the safety of this practice must be explored.

インフルエンザ粒子は空中を浮遊する飛沫、感染者との密接な接触、ウイルスに汚染された対象物に接触によってより伝播することになります(Tesini 2018).。インフルエンザ粒子は、最大48時間(米国疾病予防センターCDC)対象物上で生存し続けることができるので、対象物の効果的な殺菌はインフルエンザの拡大を防ぐための重要なステップです。現在のCDCガイドラインは塩素、過酸化水素、石鹸、アルコール(CDC)で対象物を消毒することを提案しています。エタノールはインフルエンザを含む最も臨床的に関連するウイルスに対して有効です(Kampf 2017)。過酸化水素は固体表面上で使用された場合、インフルエンザおよびノロウイルスに対して有効であることが示されています(Goyal et al。2014)。しかしながら、多孔質面上にこれらの多孔質表面上にこれらの物質を使用することの有効性は不明である。普遍的な表面消毒剤になるだろう化学物質開発はあらゆる状況でウイルスを殺すための鍵です。細菌を殺すための精油使用は確立されていて(Nazzaroら2013、Vasconcelosら2018)、そしてウィルスを殺すための精油使用の証拠が増えている。精油の拡散が空中浮遊細菌やウイルスを除去するのに効果的であるという証拠があります、しかしこの実践の安全性は探求しなければならない。

influenza particle インフルエンザ粒子
airborne droplet 空中を浮遊する飛沫
viable 生きていける
CDC「Centers for Disease Control and Prevention」米国疾病予防管理センター
chlorine 塩素
hydrogen peroxide 過酸化水素
porous surface:多孔質面; 多孔面
surface disinfectants 表面消毒剤
airborne bacteria  空中浮遊細菌

Based on the in vitro study, nebulizing blue mallee (Eucalyptus polybractea) essential oil or tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oils for 15 seconds is a fast and effective method to eliminate airborne influenza droplets within 15 minutes (Usachev et al 2013).These essential oils are considered safe for use with most people, and do not contain chemical constituents that are membrane irritants.However, most home users own diffusers with moderate output, rather than a commercial nebulizer. This may limit implementation of this method of killing airborne influenza. To increase efficacy, users could use a consumer nebulizer in a confined space, such as a closed bedroom. Following each treatment, the room should be aired out by opening a window to allow residual essential oils to leave, and to get fresh air into the room.

試験管内での研究に基づいて、15秒間ユーカリ・ブルーマリー(Eucalyptus polybractea)またはティートリー(Melaleuca alternifolia)精油を噴霧することは、15分以内に空中を浮遊するインフルエンザの飛沫を除去するための迅速かつ効果的な方法です(Usachev et al 2013)。これらの精油は多くの人々にとって安全に使用できると考えられていて、粘膜刺激がある化学成分は含まれていないです。しかし、ほとんどのホームユーザーは、市販のネブライザーよりむしろ中程度出力のディフューザーを所有しています。これは空中を浮遊するインフルエンザを殺すこの方法実施を制限するかもしれない。有効性を高めるために、使用者は閉め切った寝室のような狭い空間で消費者用ネブライザーを使用することができる。それぞれのトリートメント後に、窓を開けて外気を取り入れて、残留精油が外に出ていくようにして、部屋に新鮮な空気を取り入れるべきである。

Nebulizer:ネブライザー; 噴霧器
membrane irritants :粘膜刺激

Passive diffusion of bergamot (Citrus bergamia) or blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) essential oils for 10 minutes, or cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil for 30 minutes, was enough to reduce influenza activity in cell culture. Blend #2, a commercial germ blend containing cinnamon bark, clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), blue gum, and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oils, effectively reduced influenza activity at multiple time points in cell culture (Table 5) (Wu et al 2010).This adds support for the practice of diffusing germ blends to sanitize rooms. Clove bud and cinnamon leaf oils are high in eugenol, which also showed extensive anti-influenza activity in mid-late stages of the influenza life cycle. Because cinnamon bark oil contains trans-cinnamaldehyde, an irritant and sensitizer, it is advisable not to use it in diffuser blends for an extended time period. However, diffusing for 30 minutes in an empty room, followed by airing out the room would be a reasonable practice.For the home user, an inhaler containing anti-influenza essential oils would be another option. Inhalers are great for on-the-go use, and eliminate the need to consider other people’s health conditions.
10分間ベルガモット(Citrus bergamia)

またはユーカリ・グロブルス(Eucalyptus globulus)精油または30分間シナモン(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)精油の受動拡散は細胞培養においてインフルエンザの活性を減少させるに十分であった。ブレンド#2、シナモンバーク、クローブ(Syzygium aromaticum),スイートオレンジ(Citrus sinensis), ユーカリ・グロブルスおよびローズマリー(Rosmarinus officinalis)精油を含有している市販の細菌ブレンドは効果的に細胞培養で複数の時点でインフルエンザ活性を減少させた(Wu et al 2010)。これは部屋を消毒するために細菌ブレンドを拡散させる実践にたいしてサポートを付け加えます。クローブおよびシナモンリーフ精油はオイゲノールを多く含んでおり、それはインフルエンザのライフサイクルの中期後期段階でも広範囲な抗インフルエンザ作用を示した。シナモンバーク精油は、刺激物および感作物質であるtrans-シンナムアルデヒドを含有しているため、長期間ディフューザーブレンドにそれを使用しないことをお勧めします。しかし、空き部屋で30分間拡散し、続いて部屋の空気を外に出すことは妥当な方法です。ホームユーザーにとって、抗インフルエンザ精油を含有している吸入器は別の選択となるだろう。吸入器は、外出先での使用に最適で、他の人の健康状態を考慮する必要がなくなります。

trans-cinnamaldehyde :trans-シンナムアルデヒド
irritant 刺激物


Essential oils to prevent the spread of flu


Influenza overview and history of pandemics


Antiviral drugs


The biology of influenza


Figure 2. Influenza life cycle


Figure 3. Autophagy


Aromatic compounds with antiviral activity


Prevention of migration, and early stages of IAV life cycle in a host cell

宿主細胞における遊走の防止およびインフルエンザA 型ウイルスIAVライフサイクルの初期段階

Table 3: Essential oils and influenza viruses. For full table click on image.

表3:精油とインフルエンザウイルス テーブル全体を見るには画像をクリックしてください。

Middle stage of IAV life cycle in a host cell

宿主細胞におけるインフルエンザA 型ウイルスIAVライフサイクルの中期段階

Table 4: Essential oil constituents and influenza viruses. For full table click on image.

表4:精油成分とインフルエンザウイルス テーブル全体を見るには画像をクリックしてください。

Figure 4. Understanding influenza infection. CDC


Late stage of IAV life cycle in a host cell

宿主細胞におけるインフルエンザA 型ウイルスIAVライフサイクルの後期

Aromatic treatments suggested for home users








February 01, 2019









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