« July 2021 | Main | September 2021 »

August 27, 2021

話したり歌ったりする最中に発生する微粒子エアロゾルがCOVID-19感染に重要な役割を果たしている可能性がある。シンガポールの研究Science dailyより

Fine aerosols emitted during talking and singing may play a crucial role in COVID-19 transmission: Singapore study



Landmark findings underscore the importance of reducing exposure to fine respiratory aerosols, especially in indoor environments


Date August 11, 2021

Source: National University of Singapore




A new study has revealed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) particles can be aerosolized by an infected person during talking and singing. Researchers concluded that fine respiratory aerosols may play a significant role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission, especially in an indoor environment, and hence, should be taken into consideration when planning infection prevention measures.


Full story


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been thought to spread primarily when an infected person coughs or sneezes, but little is known about its transmissibility through activities such as breathing, talking and singing.


A new study led by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS), and conducted at the National Centre for Infectious Diseases (NCID), revealed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) particles can be aerosolised by an infected person during talking and singing. They also found that fine aerosols (less than 5 micrometres, or ?m) generated from these two types of activities contain more viral particles than coarse aerosols (more than 5 ?m). The researchers concluded that fine respiratory aerosols may play a significant role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission, especially in an indoor environment, and hence, should be taken into consideration when planning infection prevention measures.


"While previous studies have established the relative amount of aerosols (or the amount of particles) produced through similar activities, they did not measure the amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles generated. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify and compare SARS-CoV-2 particles in aerosols generated through breathing, talking and singing.Therefore, our team's work provides a foundation for estimating the risk of transmission of infection," said project leader Associate Professor Tham Kwok Wai, who is from the Department of the Built Environment at the NUS School of Design and Environment.


The study was first published online in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases on 6 August 2021. Within a day of its publication, the paper was ranked among the top 5 per cent of all research outputs scored by data science company Altmetric, and was given one of the highest attention score after different factors, like the relative reach from social media sites, blogs, policy documents, and more, were taken into account.

この研究は、2021年8月6日に学術誌「Clinical Infectious Diseases 臨床感染症」のオンライン版に掲載されました。この論文は、発表から1日以内に、データサイエンス企業のオルトメトリクス社が採点した全研究成果の上位5%にランクインし、ソーシャルメディアサイト、ブログ、政策文書などからの相対的な到達度などのさまざまな要素を考慮した結果、最も高い注目度のスコアの1つが与えられました。



August 25, 2021


Influence of obesity on serum levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in COVID-19 patients





SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2), cause of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease of 2019), represents a significant risk to people living with pre-existing conditions associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses and consequent dysfunctional immunity.


pre-existing conditions 基礎疾患

In this paper, we have evaluated the influence of obesity, a condition associated with chronic systemic inflammation, on the secretion of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in the blood of COVID-19 patients. Our hypothesis is that obesity is associated with reduced amounts of specific IgG antibodies. Results have confirmed our hypothesis and have shown that SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies are negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in COVID-19 obese patients, as expected based on the known influence of obesity on humoral immunity.

この論文では、COVID-19患者の血中SARS-CoV-2特異的IgG抗体の分泌対して慢性全身性炎症に関連する症状である肥満が与える影響を評価した。我々の仮説は、肥満は特異的IgG抗体量の減少と関連しているというものである。その結果、新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)の肥満患者では、SARS-CoV-2 IgG抗体がボディマス指数(BMI)と負の相関関係にあることが確認された。肥満が体液性免疫に影響を与えることが知られていることから、予想されていました。

chronic systemic inflammation 慢性全身性炎症
humoral immunity  体液性免疫

Antibodies in COVID-19 obese patients are also negatively associated with serum levels of pro-inflammatory and metabolic markers of inflammaging and pulmonary inflammation, such as SAA (serum amyloid A protein), CRP (C-reactive protein), and ferritin, but positively associated with NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids).


pro-inflammatory 炎症誘発性
SAA (serum amyloid A protein) 血清アミロイドA蛋白(SAA)
CRP (C-reactive protein) C-反応性タンパク(CRP )
NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids) 非エステル型脂肪酸

These results altogether could help to identify an inflammatory signature with strong predictive value for immune dysfunction. Inflammatory markers identified may subsequently be targeted to improve humoral immunity in individuals with obesity and in individuals with other chronic inflammatory conditions.


inflammatory signature 炎症シグネチャー


August 22, 2021

ワクチン接種者はどのようにデルタ株を広めるのか?科学者はなんと述べている。 ネイチャー(Nature)より

How do vaccinated people spread Delta? What the science says



Emerging data suggest that Delta could spread more readily than other coronavirus variants among people vaccinated against COVID-19. But key questions remain.


When early field data showed that vaccinating people cuts transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, researchers were cautiously optimistic. But they warned that many of those studies, although promising, took place before the fast-spreading Delta variant proliferated worldwide. Now, reports from various countries seem to confirm what scientists feared after the variant tore through India with alarming speed in April and May: Delta is more likely than other variants to spread through vaccinated people.


Data from COVID-19 tests in the United States, the United Kingdom and Singapore are showing that vaccinated people who become infected with Delta SARS-CoV-2 can carry as much virus in their nose as do unvaccinated people. This means that despite the protection offered by vaccines, a proportion of vaccinated people can pass on Delta, possibly aiding its rise.


People who have a Delta virus and happen to have "breakthrough infections can carry these really high levels of virus, and can unwittingly spread the virus to others, says David OConnor, a virologist at the University of WisconsinMadison.

「デルタ株ウイルス保有者およびたまたま“ブレイクスルー”感染した人々はまさにこれらの高濃度ウイルスのキャリアであって、知らず知らずのうちに他の人にウイルスを拡散させることになると、ウィスコンシン大学マディソン校のウイルス学者のDavid OConnor,は述べている。

The findings underscore the importance of protective measures such as wearing masks indoors to reduce transmission. Researchers stress that COVID-19 vaccines are protective against serious illness and death, but the data on Delta transmission show that “people who are vaccinated still need to take precautions, OConnor says.


Testing transmissibility


O’Connor and colleagues at the Madison and Dane County health department looked at infections in Wisconsin in June and July.


The team used PCR tests, which are widely used to confirm COVID-19 infections, to estimate the concentration of virus in nasal-fluid samples. The tests detect the virus’s genetic material by amplifying DNA until it is detectable as a fluorescent signal. The number of amplification cycles needed to get a signal a measure called the cycle threshold value or Ct serves as a proxy for viral concentration in the sample. The lower a samples Ct, the more viral genetic material present.


threshold value 閾値
fluorescent signal 蛍光シグナル
cycle threshold サイクル数

In a preprint study published on medRxiv on 11 August1, the researchers compared Ct values for 719 people between 29 June and 31 July, during which 90% of the 122 coronavirus samples they sequenced were the Delta variant. Of the 311 vaccinated people who tested positive for SAR-CoV-2 in that group, most had Ct values of less than 25, a level at which researchers expect the presence of infectious SARS-CoV-2. To confirm this, the team cultured 55 samples that had Ct values less than 25, from vaccinated and unvaccinated people, and detected infectious virus in nearly every one. Most unvaccinated people also had Ct values below this level.


The bottom line is, this can happen it can be true that vaccinated people can spread the virus. But we do not yet know what their relative role in overall community spread is, says co-author Thomas Friedrich, a virologist at the University of WisconsinMadison.


bottom line 要するに

Data from Provincetown, Massachusetts, suggest similar findings. An August report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) showed that following large gatherings in the beach town, nearly three-quarters of 469 new COVID-19 cases that occurred in the state were in vaccinated people2. Both vaccinated and unvaccinated people had comparably low Ct values, indicating high viral loads, and of the 133 samples sequenced, 90% were identified as Delta. The findings prompted the CDC to update its guidance on 27 July and once again recommend that people in areas of high transmission wear masks indoors.


virus load ウイルス量

The Provincetown results were linked to big gatherings, but Wisconsin didn’t have similar activity, suggesting that small household gatherings could also help Delta to spread, Friedrich says.


virus load ウイルス量

Different biology


In Houston, Texas, where a Houston Methodist Hospital team has been sequencing and logging SARS-CoV-2 variants for almost every COVID-19 case in the hospital system, about 17% of Delta cases are in vaccinated people since March 2021, nearly three times the rate of breakthrough infections compared with all other variants combined.Patients with Delta SARS-CoV-2 also stayed in hospital slightly longer than did people infected with other variants. “Theres potentially a slightly different biology to the infection, says James Musser, a molecular pathologist and director of the hospitals Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research. His team found that Ct levels were similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated people3.

ヒューストン・メソジスト病院のチームが、病院システム内のほぼ全てのログインされたCOVID-19症例対するSARS-CoV-2変異株のDNAの塩基配列を決定し、20213月以降、デルタ株症例の約17%がワクチン接種者であり、他のすべての変異株を合わせた場合と比較して約3倍の割合でブレイクスルー感染が発生している。また、デルタ株SARS-CoV-2感染者は他の変異株感染者よりやや長めに入院していた。同病院の分子・トランスレーショナルヒト感染症研究センター長で分子病理学者のJames Musser氏は、「感染症に対する生物学的性質が若干異なる可能性があります」と述べている。同チームは、ワクチンを接種した人としていない人では、Ct値のレベルが同程度であることを発見しました3

Infectious Diseases 感染症

How the Delta variant achieves its ultrafast spread


However, vaccinated people with Delta might remain infectious for a shorter period, according to researchers in Singapore who tracked viral loads for each day of COVID-19 infection among people who had and hadn’t been vaccinated.


Delta viral loads were similar for both groups for the first week of infection, but dropped quickly after day 7 in vaccinated people4. “Given the high virus levels seen in the first week of illness with Delta, measures such as masks and hand hygiene which can reduce transmission are important for everyone, regardless of vaccination status, says co-author Barnaby Young, an infectious-disease clinician at the National Centre for Infectious Diseases in Singapore.

シンガポールの研究者らは、ワクチンを接種した人としていない人の間でCOVID-19に感染した人の各日のウイルス量を追跡しましたところ、ワクチン接種者のデルタ株ウイルスの感染は短期間の可能性があることがわかりました。デルタ株ウイルス量は、感染後1週間は両グループとも同程度でしたが、ワクチンを接種者では7日目以降に急速に低下しました4。共同執筆者であるシンガポール国立感染症センターの感染症臨床医Barnaby Young氏は、「デルタ感染の最初の1週間で高ウイルス量が見られたことを考えると、ワクチン接種の有無にかかわらず、感染を減らすことができるマスクや手指衛生などの対策がすべての人にとって重要です」と述べています。

One massive analysis of Delta transmission comes from the UK REACT-1 programme, led by a team at Imperial College London, which tests more than 100,000 UK volunteers every few weeks. The team ran Ct analyses for samples received in May, June and July, when Delta was rapidly replacing other variants to become the dominant driver of COVID-19 in the country.The results suggested that among people testing positive, those who had been vaccinated had a lower viral load on average than did unvaccinated people.
Paul Elliott, an epidemiologist at Imperial, says that these results differ from other Ct studies because this study sampled the population at random and included people who tested positive without showing symptoms.


REACT-:Real-time Assessment of Community Transmission (REACT) Study


These findings — along with an increase in cases in younger people who have not yet received both jabs underscore the effectiveness of double vaccination against Delta, Elliott says. We think its really, really important to get as many people double vaccinated, and particularly those younger groups, as soon as possible.



What is the REACT study?



REACT (REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission) is a series of studies that are using home testing to improve our understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic is progressing across England. This major research programme was commissioned by the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) and is being carried out by Imperial College London in partnership with Ipsos MORI and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust. Here’s our announcement from when the study first launched in April 2020.

コミュニティー感染のリアルタイム評価(REACT)研究とは、COVID-19パンデミックがイングランド全土でどのように進行しているかについての理解を深めるために、家庭用検査キットを利用した一連の研究のことです。この大規模研究プログラムは、英国保健社会福祉省(DHSC)の委託を受け、インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドンがIpsos MORI社およびインペリアル・カレッジ・ヘルスケアNHSトラストと共同で実施しています。ここでは、20204月に研究が初めて開始されたときの発表をご紹介します。

REACT takes two main approaches to track the virus in the population, looking for both current and past infection.


How REACT 1 and REACT 2 work


REACT 1: Antigen (swab) testing for the coronavirus

REACT 1:コロナウイルスの抗原(綿棒)検査

Each month over 150,000 people across England are randomly sent a nose/throat swab test to take at home. This helps us understand how many people are currently infected with the coronavirus, including those who aren’t showing symptoms, and identify those who are most at risk.


REACT 2: Antibody (lateral flow) testing


Roughly every 6 weeks, over 100,000 volunteers across England are sent a fingerprick antibody testing kit, called a lateral flow test, which looks for coronavirus antibodies in the blood. This helps us understand how many people have already had COVID-19 and developed antibodies against the virus.




August 19, 2021


Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case?control study in six countries



plant-based diet :プラントベースト・ダイエット
case control study  症例対照研究
pescatarian ペスクタリアン、魚菜食主義者ペスカタリアンとは、イタリアン語のペッシェ(魚)とベジタリアン(菜食主義)が合わさった言葉ですが、魚を食べる菜食主義者とされています。



Background Several studies have hypothesised that dietary habits may play an important role in COVID-19 infection, severity of symptoms, and duration of illness. However, no previous studies have investigated the association between dietary patterns and COVID-19.

背景 いくつかの研究では、食習慣がCOVID-19の感染症、症状の重症度、罹患期間に重要な役割を果たしているという仮説が立てられている。しかし、食生活のパターンとCOVID-19との関連を調べた研究はこれまでにない。



Healthcare workers (HCWs) from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA) with substantial exposure to COVID-19 patients completed a web-based survey from 17 July to 25 September 2020. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, dietary information, and COVID-19 outcomes. We used multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the association between self-reported diets and COVID-19 infection, severity, and duration.

方法 COVID-19患者に実質的に暴露されている6か国(フランス、ドイツ、イタリア、スペイン、英国、米国)の医療従事者(HCW)が、2020年7月17日から9月25日までウェブベースの調査に参加した。参加者は、人口統計学的特性、食事情報、COVID-19の転帰に関する情報を提供した。多変量ロジスティック回帰モデルを用いて、自己申告の食生活とCOVID-19の感染、重症度、期間との関連を評価した。

demographic characteristics 人口統計的特性
multivariable logistic regression (統計)多変量ロジスティック回帰,

Results There were 568 COVID-19 cases and 2316 controls. Among the 568 cases, 138 individuals had moderate-to-severe COVID-19 severity whereas 430 individuals had very mild to mild COVID-19 severity. After adjusting for important confounders, participants who reported following ‘plant-based diets’ and ‘plant-based diets or pescatarian diets’ had 73% (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.81) and 59% (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.99) lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 severity, respectively, compared with participants who did not follow these diets. Compared with participants who reported following ‘plant-based diets’, those who reported following ‘low carbohydrate, high protein diets’ had greater odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.13 to 13.24). No association was observed between self-reported diets and COVID-19 infection or duration.

結果 COVID-19症例は568名、対照者は2316名であった。568名症例のうち、138名はCOVID-19の重症度は中等症から重症であったのに対し、430名はCOVID-19の重症度が軽症から中等症であった。重要な交絡因子を調整した結果、「プラントベースト・ダイエット」および「プラントベースト・ダイエットまたはペスカタリアンの食事」を実践していると回答した参加者は、これらの食事を実践していない参加者と比較して、中等症から重症のCOVID-19重症化のオッズ比がそれぞれ73%(OR 0.27、95%CI 0.10〜0.81)および59%(OR 0.41、95%CI 0.17〜0.99)低下した。また、「プラントベースト・ダイエット」をしていると回答した参加者と比較して、「低炭水化物・高タンパク質の食事」をしていると回答した参加者は、中等症から重症のCOVID-19患者のオッズ比が高かった(OR 3.86、95%CI 1.13〜13.24)。自己申告の食生活とCOVID-19の感染や罹患期間との間には関連性は認められなかった。
confounders 交絡因子

Conclusion In six countries, plant-based diets or pescatarian diets were associated with lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. These dietary patterns may be considered for protection against severe COVID-19.

結論 6カ国において、プラントベースト・ダイエットまたはペスカタリアンの食生活は、中等症から重症のCOVID-19のオッズ比が低いことと関連していた。これらの食事パターンは、重症のCOVID-19に対する保護を考慮してもよいと思われる。

What this paper adds


In 2884 front-line healthcare workers from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA), individuals who reported following plant-based diets and plant-based diets or pescatarian diets that were higher in vegetables, legumes and nuts, and lower in poultry and red and processed meats, had 73% and 59% lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19, respectively. Plant-based diets or pescatarian diets are healthy dietary patterns, which may be considered for protection against severe COVID-19.


- 6カ国(フランス、ドイツ、イタリア、スペイン、英国、米国)の第一線で働く医療従事者2884人を対象に、野菜、豆類、ナッツ類を多く含み、鶏肉、赤身肉、加工肉を少なくした植物性食生活、またはペスカタリアン食を実践していると回答した人は、中等度から重度のCOVID-19に罹患する確率がそれぞれ73%、59%低くなりました。植物性の食事やペスカタリアンの食事は健康的な食事パターンであり、重症のCOVID-19に対する保護を考慮してもよいと思われます。


August 16, 2021


SARS-CoV-2 and mitochondrial health: implications of lifestyle and ageing


The immune system, hormesis and mitochondria

Humans, hormesis, exercise and the immune system


The effects of hormesis, certainly for humans, are perhaps most clearly seen in response to exercise training, in particular, aerobic training, where both mitochondrial capacity and function is increased in young and old [123, 124]. This is matched by increased survival and healthier ageing in cohorts who undertake plenty of physical activity [125]. Active muscle is generally inflammatory, but commensurately induces counterbalancing powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant mechanisms throughout the body. Exercise thus appears to show a biphasic dose response and the evidence is building that as long as it is not done excessively, in particular, allowing time for recovery, it is highly beneficial: over time the adaptive over-compensation includes an improved anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant feedback (25-28) [126].

確かに人間にとってのホルミシスの効果は、運動トレーニング、特にミトコンドリアの能力と機能の両方が老いも若きも増加する有酸素トレーニングに反応しておそらく最もはっきりと見られます[123、124]。 これは、多くの身体活動を行うコホート(臨床試験の対象集団)において生存率の向上とより健康的老化と一致します[125]。 活動中の筋肉は一般的に炎症性ですが、それに比例して、体全体に強力な抗炎症および抗酸化メカニズムのバランスを取ります。したがって、運動は二相性の用量反応を示すようであり、特に回復のための時間を与えて過度に行われない限り、それは非常に有益であるという証拠が構築されています。時間の経過とともに適応性超回復には抗炎症の改善および抗酸化フィードバックが含まれます。(25-28)[126]。

aerobic training 有酸素トレーニング
cohorts :コホート
biphasic 二相性
dose response用量反応 –

Muscle has now been shown to have other functions, like harbouring and supplying anti-viral stem T-cells, hence, antagonising T-cell exhaustion and protecting proliferative potential during inflammation [127]. In contrast white adipose tissue plays a key role in adaptive immunity, and in excess, contributes to the altered immune function and chronic inflammation often associated with obesity [128].In particular, excessive visceral adipose tissue (VAT), seems to play a pivotal role in obesity-related pathogenesis; critically, its volume is decreased by exercise [129]. Furthermore, not only does type 1 interferon unlock dormant adipocyte inflammatory potential [130], but exercise reduces adipose expression of NLRP3 [131]. It therefore seems that adipose tissue and muscle play a yin-yang role in the immune response, whose set point will thus be determined by an individual’s fitness and calorie balance, and overall mitochondrial capacity and health, and thus, reserve.In short, mitochondrial reserve, and thus spare respiratory capacity, is pivotal in enhancing the “healthspan”, and is greatly improved by exercise [109]. The key here is that stress can be signalled from mitochondria in any tissue to the rest of the body by way of “mitokines”; muscle activity is a prime inducer of mitochondrial stress [132].

筋肉(骨格筋)は現在、抗ウイルス性幹T細胞を含み、供給するなど、他の機能を持っていることが示されています。したがって、T細胞の枯渇に拮抗し、炎症中のウイルス増殖能を防御します[127]。対照的に、白色脂肪組織は適応免疫において重要な役割を果たし、過剰において、肥満に関連することが多い免疫機能の変化と慢性炎症の一因となります[128]。特に、過剰な内臓脂肪組織(VAT)は、肥満関連の病因において極めて重要な役割を果たしているようです。決定的に、その量は運動によって減少します[129]。さらに、1型インターフェロンは休眠中の脂肪細胞の炎症の可能性を解き放つだけでなく[130]、運動はインフラマソーム(NLRP)の脂肪発現を減少させます[131]。したがって、脂肪組織と筋肉は免疫応答において陰陽の役割を果たしているようです。その設定値は、個人のフィットネスとカロリーのバランス、および総合的なミトコンドリアの能力と健康、したがって予備力によって決定されます。したがって、脂肪組織と筋肉は免疫応答において陰陽の役割を果たしているようです。その設定値は、個人のフィットネスとカロリーのバランス、および全体的なミトコンドリアの能力と健康、したがって予備力によって決定されます。要するに、ミトコンドリアの予備力、したがって予備の呼吸能力は、「健康スパン」を高める上で極めて重要であり、運動によって大幅に改善されます[109]。ここで重要なのは、ストレスはあらゆる組織のミトコンドリアから「マイトカイン」を介して体の残りの部分に信号を送ることができるということです。 筋活動はミトコンドリアストレスの主要な誘発因子です[132]。

white adipose tissue 白色脂肪組織
visceral adipose tissue (vat) 内臓脂肪組織,



Skeletal muscle antagonizes antiviral CD8+ T cell exhaustion

骨格筋は抗ウイルス性の細胞障害性CD8+ T細胞の枯渇を相殺する。



CD8+T細胞と呼ばれることの多い細胞障害性リンパ球(CTL)は、適応免疫系の重要な構成要素であり、ウイルスや細菌などの細胞内病原体や腫瘍に対する免疫防御に重要な役割を果たします[1]。ヘルパーCD4+ T細胞(Th1、Th2、Th9、Th17、Th22、Tfh、およびTregなど)と同様に、CTLは胸腺で生成され、αβ-T細胞受容体またはTCRを発現します。しかし、CD4+ T細胞とは異なり、CTLはCD8+補助受容体をその表面に発現し、MHCクラスIに提示された外来抗原に応答します。

ナイーブ/休止CD8+ T細胞は、感染を除去するために体をスキャンする細胞傷害性エフェクター細胞への増殖と分化により病原体に応答する圧倒的な能力を持っています。CD8+ T細胞が欠如すると、抗腫瘍免疫が阻害され、腫瘍増殖に対する感受性が高まります。D8機能の調節障害は、免疫病理または免疫媒介性損傷につながる過剰な免疫応答の一因となる場合もあります。循環血中およびリンパ節に常在するCD8+ T細胞は、ナイーブT細胞、エフェクターT細胞、およびメモリーT細胞のサブセットへの分化状態に応じて古典的に細分化されます。




霜降りは解消できる! 筋肉を動かすのが決め手

図2◎ 休眠状態のサテライト細胞を活性化させると筋肉になる




New anti-inflammatory compounds identified


V D Dixitたちは、絶食、激しい運動、カロリー制限や低炭水化物ケト原性食の摂取に応答して体内で生産される代謝産物であるβ-ヒドロキシ酪酸(BHB)にNLRP3を直接阻害する作用があることを明らかにした。

*Mitokineマイトカインを調べてみるとマイオカイmyokine(骨格筋から分泌される生理活性 物質の総称)で良く出てきて、マイトカインのことがわからずやっと見つけた文献です。

Autophagy deficiency leads to protection from obesity and insulin resistance by inducing Fgf21 as a mitokine




*(1) 骨格筋から分泌される生理活性因子(マイオカイン)の探索




« July 2021 | Main | September 2021 »