December 05, 2022


“機能性フレグランス "の謎に迫る

Inside the Murky World of "Functional Fragrance"

Spritzing on perfumes that aim to boost your mood can feel like a convenient quick fix, but the science behind the claims remains shaky.



January 27, 2022

This fall, Addison Rae did what many celebrities and influencers have done before and launched a perfume line. The three perfumes have a slight twist from other celeb launches, however; her Happy AF, Chill AF, and Hyped AF are on trend not just for their slangy names but also because they tout ingredients that promise to "boost your mood."

この秋、tiktokスターアディソン・レイはこれまで多くのセレブやインフルエンサーが行ってきたことを行い、香水ラインを立ち上げた。彼女のHappy AF、Chill AF、Hyped AFの3つの香水は、そのスラング的な名前だけでなく、"気分を高める "ことを約束する成分を売り物にしているので、他のセレブの発売とは少しひねりが効いています。

Rae is not the only one to think fragrance consumers are after more than just smelling good. In 2019, the beauty supplement company The Nue Co launched its Functional Fragrance, a blend of palo santo, violet, and cardamom that promises to reduce stress, followed by Forest Lungs in 2020 and Mind Energy in 2021, which aim to produce some of the same health benefits associated with forest bathing and boost focus, respectively. Since 2016, natural perfume brand Heretic has incorporated wellness into its storytelling, including its September launch Dirty Hinoki, described as a "grounding" scent inspired by hinoki's potential ability to alleviate depression.

フレグランスの消費者が求めているのは、単に良い香りだけではないと考えるのは、レイだけではない。2019年には、英国美容サプリメント会社のTHE NUE CO.(ザ・ニュウコー)が、パロサント、バイオレット、カルダモンをブレンドし、ストレス軽減を約束する「Functional Fragrance機能性フレグランス」を発売し、2020年には「Forest Lungs」、2021年には、森林浴に伴う健康効果と集中力アップをそれぞれ目指す「Mind Energy」を発売している。2016年以降、自然派香水ブランドのヘレティックパルファムは、9月に発売した「ダーティヒノキ」を含め、ウェルネスをストーリーテリングに取り入れており、ヒノキの鬱を緩和する潜在能力にインスピレーションを得た「グラウンディング」の香りと表現しています。

ダーティ ヒノキ|汚れたヒノキ ? 香水通販 NOSE SHOP

The growing slate of mood-boosting fragrances represents not just a demand for a wide array of "wellness" products, with everything from bath bombs to oat milk promising such effects, but also consumers’ changing relationship to perfume. "Perfume for the longest time was really the attainable luxury end of a luxury brand," says Douglas Little, founder of and perfumer for Heretic. "And now I really think that that ideology for a certain group of people has faded, and the idea that the fragrance is made from better materials and it also, by the way, can help you relax, I think this is really the next wave of what we're seeing in personal wellness."

気分を高揚させるフレグランスが増えているのは、バスボムからオーツミルクまで、さまざまな「ウェルネス」商品への需要が高まっていることだけでなく、消費者の香水との関係の変化も表している。「香水は長い間、ラグジュアリーブランドの中でも手に入れやすい高級品でした」と、ヘレティックの創設者で調香師のDouglas Little氏は言います。「香水は、より良い素材から作られ、リラックス効果もあるという考え方は、パーソナル・ウェルネスに見られる次の波だと思います。

The market for wellness products is in of itself nothing new, says C?line Manetta, senior consumer science manager at International Flavors & Fragrances, Inc. (IFF). But what's changed in recent years, and especially with the COVID-19 pandemic, is the acceleration of demand for new products that address all aspects of life. "It's really 24/7 wellness. It's a continuous search for positive emotion," Manetta says. Fragrance is just the tip of the iceberg; an April 2021 report from consulting company, McKinsey, estimates the global wellness market to be worth more than $1.5 trillion, with 42 percent of consumers in their survey reporting wellness to be a top priority.


Enter Aromachology


That opens up an opportunity for fragrance developers like IFF to further their research into aromachology, the study of aromas on human behavior and emotion (aromatherapy, though similar, focuses exclusively on the use of natural essential oils for therapeutic purposes). This spring, IFF launched its Science of Wellness program to create scents that can purportedly aid in relaxation or boost energy. In recent years, Givaudan has developed new wellness-oriented technologies like DreamScentz, which uses fragrance aimed at enhancing sleep. Studies outside the fragrance world have also investigated fragrance's health benefits, with studies finding for example that linalool, found in lavender essential oil, may ease anxiety.


The Two Keys to Mastering the No-Makeup Look


Givaudan's launches and other developments give perfumers a new palette of wellness ingredients to incorporate into their formulas. An eau de parfum can feature dozens of ingredients, however, with up to 80 percent of a given formulation composed of alcohol. What matters though, according to Juliette Karagueuzoglou, senior perfumer at IFF who has made fragrances for the likes of Yves Saint Laurent and L'Artisan Parfumeur, is not the quantity of a wellness ingredient, but that you register its smell. "What is important is that, since you can smell it, since it is noticeable olfactively, you have the effect, because the impact is the smell on your brain," she says.


Manetta emphasizes though that regardless of any potential benefits, perfume is not a cure-all. "In perfumery, we are more talking about positive emotions, instead of anti-anxiety or anti-stress claims, because we are not drugs, we are not medicine."


A Search for Medical Alternatives


But the fact that they are not drugs is specifically what makes "functional fragrance," or any wellness-oriented product, appealing to some. "Modern medicine has been wonderful and life saving, but there are real gaps there still. And so, in general, people look for other things that they can do themselves," says psychologist Traci Stein, PhD, MPH. A beauty product like perfume that can be picked up for $40 without insurance or doctor intervention offers an attractive way to fill that gap at a time when four in 10 U.S. adults report they are struggling with symptoms of anxiety or depression. "I think people like having products that promise very quick results, and that don't require a doctor to step in and prescribe something," says Dr. Stein, who has written about the benefits of aromatherapy, but is cautious to label aromatherapy’s benefits as "proven," as research is not yet definitive.

しかし、薬ではないという事実が、特に「機能性フレグランス」、あるいはウェルネス志向の製品を魅力的にしているのです。「現代医学は素晴らしいもので、命を救ってくれるものですが、そこにはまだ本当のギャップがあります。と、一般的に、人々 は自分自身で出来る他のものを探して」心理学者 Traci Stein、博士、MPH は言います。米国の成人の10人に4人が不安や鬱の症状に苦しんでいると報告されている今、保険や医師の介入なしに40ドルで手に入る香水のような美容製品は、そのギャップを埋める魅力的な方法なのです。「スタイン博士は、アロマセラピーの効果について書いたことがありますが、研究がまだ確定的でないため、アロマセラピーの効果を「実証済み」とすることには慎重です。

However, consumers are not always aware of the limitations of aroma compounds, and "somebody who's going to seek out these [wellness] fragrances, who does have a real problem, may erroneously believe that they're likely to have a bigger effect," Dr. Stein says.


Behind the Claims


The often vague language used to describe the science behind these fragrances can also cause confusion for a nonexpert. Addison Rae’s fragrances contain "ingredients that have scored well on emotional responses," but it's hard to parse out the scientific meaning of that on its surface. According to Lori Mariano, managing partner at Hampton Beauty, which partnered with Addison Rae to develop the scents, this information came from their collaboration with the research and development team at fragrance company, Symrise: "[They] work[ed] with neuroscience experts to track and validate emotional responses based on brain activity upon smelling individual proprietary ingredients used in the fragrance formulations.”

これらのフレグランスの背後にある科学を説明するために使用される多くの曖昧な言葉も、専門家ではない人を混乱させる可能性がありますアディソン・レイのフレグランスには、「感情的な反応に対して良いスコアを出した成分」が含まれていますが、その科学的な意味を表面的に解析するのは困難です。アディソン・レイと提携して香りを開発した Hampton Beauty のマネージング パートナー、Lori Mariano によると、この情報は、ドイツの香料会社シムライズの研究開発チームとのコラボレーションから生まれた: “神経科学の専門家と一緒に、香料配合に使用される個々の独自の成分の香りを嗅いだときの脳活動に基づく感情的反応を追跡、検証することに取り組みました。"

On the other hand, sometimes a claim is specific, but the research behind it appears to come from the company itself. For example, "research conducted by The Nue Co" found a whopping 96 percent of its Functional Fragrance customers felt "instantly calmer" after using the product. When research on a product isn't conducted by an independent party, it can present a conflict of interest, notes Dr. Stein. [We've reached out to The Nue Co about their methodology and will update this article when we hear back.]

一方、宣伝文句が具体的であるにもかかわらず、その背景にある研究が企業自身のものであるかのように見えることがあります。例えば、「The Nue Coが行った調査」によると、同社の機能性フレグランスの顧客の実に96%が、その製品を使用した後に「瞬時に落ち着く」と感じていることが判明しました。製品の研究が独立した第三者によって行われていない場合、利害の対立が生じる可能性があると、スタイン博士は指摘しています。[私たちはThe Nue Coにその方法論について問い合わせたので、返事が来たらこの記事を更新します]。

"There's a lot of money to be made by being aware of people's desires to have control over their care."


"These things are pleasurable, and it feels like we're taking good care of ourselves," Dr. Stein adds. “And there's nothing wrong with that. I think companies are aware though, that there's a lot of money to be made by being aware of people's desires to have control over their care and to feel better right away.”


And it’s not just perfume: Beauty products as a whole are now promising a more holistic experience that is less about looking attractive and more about feeling good. In the case of perfume, that’s a marked shift from how the product has been marketed in recent years. "I would say it's going back to the origins of perfume, linking the perfume to wellbeing and other roles that are far from the sexy, social role that we are used to bringing to the perfume," Manetta says.


Fragrance has always sold a fantasy, and the fantasy of feeling good may certainly be more appealing than that of trying to fit a narrow beauty ideal. But, as with pretty much any product in the wellness industrial complex, the functional fragrance category is susceptible to overpromising.



IFF’s scent division has launched its Science of Wellness program to address consumer desires for a more holistic approach to well-being.

The program is designed to guide the creation of scents that support science-based consumer well-being, with emotional, cognitive and physical benefits. This includes scents that evoke happiness, relaxation, mindfulness and self-esteem.


IFF Science of Wellness is an integrated solution, combining 40 years of human conscious and unconscious measures, neurosciences, artificial intelligence and IFF ingredients.


Nicolas Mirzayantz, president, Scent, said, “IFF has a long history of research into the effects of fragrance on consumer wellness and emotions, along with an AI exploration initiated in 2006. Combining the results of these ongoing studies with the AI unique capabilities, a 15-year pioneer, is allowing our perfumers to awaken emotions and move into territories that we believe are more exciting and relevant for our customers and consumers alike. By pulling together our research, ingredients and technologies into one program, we are expanding our ability to serve growing consumer demand for wellness solutions."


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July 12, 2022


Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases




Essential oils (EOs) are concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds which are extracted from herbs, flowers, and other plant parts. Oil is “essential” in the sense that it contains the “essence of” the plant’s fragrance. They are recommended for or encouraged to be applied as a complementary therapy for people with anxiety, pain, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression [1,2]. EOs can be absorbed into the body by oral administration, inhalation, diffusers, baths, and massages. Many studies show that EOs were effective in reducing pain, anxiety, and stress symptoms in animal models and humans with different CNS disorders [1,2]. EO constituents belong mainly to two chemical groups: terpenoids (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and some phenylpropanoid derivatives. Terpenoid group compounds are usually fairly hydrophobic with molecular weights below 300 Daltons [3].


hydrophobic liquid  疎水性液体
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD:注意欠如・多動症
bipolar disorder 双極性障害(躁うつ病)

Activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor system and the blockade of neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels (Na+ channels) are essential for the overall balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition which is vital for normal brain function and critical for the central nervous system (CNS) disorders. It has been suggested that EO constituents could exert their biological activities through modulating the GABAergic system and inhibiting Na+ channels [4,5]. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS and the GABA receptor system exerts a major inhibitory function in the brain. The dysfunction or deficiency of the GABAergic system has been implicated in epilepsy, pain, and anxiety [6]. Neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels mediate the propagation of action potentials along axons, and thus, are thought to be important targets of antiseizure drugs. Local anesthetics and analgesics prevent the transmission of nerve impulses via their binding to Na+ channels. Two main types of Na+ currents, termed tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and TTX-resistant, have been identified in the dorsal root ganglion [7,8]. Studies on Na+ channels have demonstrated a greater involvement of Nav1.7, a predominant subtype of TTX-sensitive sodium channels expressed principally in peripheral neurons [8], in inflammatory pain [9,10] and in pain sensation [11,12].


voltage-gated sodium channels 電位依存性ナトリウムチャンネル
action potentials 活動電位
axons 軸索
antiseizure drugs.抗けいれん薬
Local anesthetics 局所麻酔剤
tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive テトロドトキシン感受性
dorsal root ganglion:後根神経節(こうこんしんけいせつ)

Recently, many studies have addressed the potential of natural EOs for treatment of anxiety, convulsion, and pain in humans and in rodents or fish neuropathic models, and the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological profile. The main constituents of EOs were isolated and chemically elucidated. Recent studies indicate that many EOs and their constituents exert pharmacological properties through interactions with the GABAergic system and voltage-gated Na+ channels. An increasing number of studies show that: (1) many EOs used for the treatment of anxiety affect the function of the GABAergic system [13,14,15,16]; (2) many EOs with antinociceptive and anticonvulsant properties inhibit the function of neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels [17]; (3) some EOs affect the function of both the GABAergic system and voltage-gated Na+ channels [4,18].

最近、多くの研究が、ヒト、げっ歯類や魚類の神経障害モデルにおける不安、痙攣、痛みの治療に対する天然精油の可能性と、その薬理学的プロファイルの基礎となるメカニズムについて取り上げています。精油の主成分は単離され、化学的に解明されました。最近の研究では、多くの精油とその成分は、GABA作動性システムおよび電位依存性Na+チャネルとの相互作用を通じて薬理学的特性を発揮することが示されている。また、以下のような研究結果も増えています。(1)不安の治療に使用される多くの精油は、GABA作動性システムの機能に影響を与える[13,14,15,16]、(2)抗侵害受容および抗痙攣特性を持つ多くの精油は、神経細胞の電位依存性ナトリウムチャンネルの機能を阻害する[17]、(3) いくつかの精油はGABA作動性システムの機能と電位依存性ナトリウムチャンネルとの両方の機能に影響する[4,18]。

This review summarizes the beneficial effects of EOs and their constituents targeting the GABAergic system and neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels for CNS disorders, in particular with respect to their antinociceptive, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and sedative effects.



ベンゼン環(C6)に直鎖状プロパン(C3)が結合したC6-C3単位を基本骨格とする天然芳香族化合物であり、シキミ酸経路によって生合成される。各種ケイヒ酸誘導体が生成し狭義のフェニルプロパノイドとされているのもは、芳香を有する物が多く、ケイヒアルデヒドやアネトール、オイゲノールなど香料や芳香性健胃薬などの原料になっている。また、C3部分でラクトン環を形成したクマリン類、C6-C3単位2-4個が結合したリグナン類、C6-C3化合物からβ酸化によって生成したバニリンや安息香酸などのC6-C1化合物も広義のフェニルプロパノイドに属する。(2006.10.17 掲載)


ナトリウムチャネルは高い選択性を持ってナトリウムイオンを透過させるイオンチャネルである。ナトリウムチャネルとしては、電位依存性ナトリウムチャネル(Navチャネル)、および上皮性ナトリウムチャネル(ENaC)が知られているが、これらは分子構造が全く異なっているため、本項目では電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルについてのみ記述する。電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルはホジキン(Alan Lloyd Hodgkin)とハクスレー(Andrew Fielding Huxley)によるイカの巨大軸索を用いた研究によりその存在が予測され、1984年に沼博士らによって遺伝子が同定された。Navチャネルは細胞外に量が最も多い陽イオンであるナトリウムイオンを透過させることで、大きな内向き電流を生じ脱分極を効率よくもたらすことができる。中枢神経や末梢神経、骨格筋、心筋、内分泌細胞等に存在し、電位依存性カリウムチャネルと膜電位を介して機能的に共役することで、活動電位の開始および伝搬に本質的な役割を担っている。

神経因性疼痛治療薬としての 電位依存性ナトリウムチャネル遮断薬の探索研究

要約:電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルは,神経細胞の 興奮や伝達を担っており,痛みの神経伝達に深く関与 することが知られている.現在までに 9 種類(Nav1.1 〜Nav1.9)の電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルが報告されているが,その中で Nav1.7,Nav1.3,Nav1.8の3つ のサブタイプは神経障害性疼痛との関連性を示唆する 報告が多い.現在,臨床ではメキシレチン,リドカイ ンなどの電位依存性ナトリウムチャネル遮断薬が処方 されている.これら既存の治療薬は,サブタイプ非選 択的な薬剤であることから Nav1.7,Nav1.3,Nav1.8 の いずれにも作用することで鎮痛効果を示すと考えられ る.


テトロドトキシン (tetrodotoxin, TTX) は化学式C11H17N3O8 で表され、ビブリオ属やシュードモナス属などの一部の真正細菌によって生産されるアルカロイドである。一般にフグの毒として知られるが、他にアカハライモリ、ツムギハゼ、ヒョウモンダコ、スベスベマンジュウガニなど幾つかの生物もこの毒をもっている。習慣性がないため鎮痛剤[1]として医療に用いられる[2]。分子量は319.27。名称はフグ科に由来する

後根神経節における電位依存性 Na チャネルの機能解析 ~痛覚伝達における役割~

2.痛みとは 痛みは外部からの侵害的要因や体内の病的状態に対する警告反応としての役割を持ち,免疫系 と並ぶ重要な生体防御機構である.しかし,痛み は「不快な感覚性・情動性の体験であり,それに は組織損傷を伴うものと,そのような損傷がある ように表現されるものがある」(国際疼痛学会に よる)と定義されるように,非常に複雑なもので あり,それ自身が身体に有害な病態をもたらすと いう二面性を持つ. 皮膚感覚を受容する一次知覚神経はその細胞 体を後根神経節(dorsal root ganglion, 以下 DRG)に 持ち,末梢・中枢の両側に軸索を伸ばす,感覚情 報の伝達に最初にかかわっている神経である.一 次知覚神経は伝導速度,軸索線維の太さおよび髄 鞘の有無などにより,Aβ線維,Aδ線維,C 線維の三 種類に分類され,これらはそれぞれに異なる感覚 を伝えている. 通常,触,圧覚などの非侵害性刺激は有髄の太 い Aβ線維を介して伝達されるのに対し,痛みな どの侵害性の刺激は有髄の細い Aδ線維と無髄の 細い C 線維を介して伝達される.さらに Aδ線維 は鋭く識別性の高い一次痛を,C 線維は焼け付く ような,鈍く持続的な二次痛を伝達すると考えら れており,慢性痛など臨床的に問題になる痛み重要であるのはC線維である1), 2)(図 1).

3.電位依存性ナトリウムチャネルと痛み 神経細胞の情報伝達の基本である活動電位は 細胞膜のイオンチャネルを介したイオンの移動 により生じる.電位依存性ナトリウムチャネル (以下,Na チャネル)はその名のとおり,電位に 依存して開口し,Na イオンを選択的に透過させる イオンチャネルである.神経細胞,骨格筋細胞, 心筋細胞といった興奮性細胞に発現し,電位依存 性カリウムチャネルと共に活動電位の発生および伝播を担う膜機能分子である.


HOME ガイドライン がん疼痛の薬物療法に関するガイドライン(2010年版)
2章 背景知識 4 薬理学的知識 3 鎮痛補助薬 3. 各鎮痛補助薬の特徴

3. 各鎮痛補助薬の特徴 - 日本緩和医療学会
2章 背景知識 
4 薬理学的知識 3鎮痛補助薬
[作用機序・特徴] 主な作用機序として、


June 24, 2022


The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application


Sachiko Koyama 1,* and Thomas Heinbockel 2,*

1 Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA

2 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
ハワード大学、ワシントンD.C 医学部解剖学科



Essential oils have been used in multiple ways, i.e., inhaling, topically applying on the skin, and drinking. Thus, there are three major routes of intake or application involved: the olfactory system, the skin, and the gastro-intestinal system. Understanding these routes is important for clarifying the mechanisms of action of essential oils.


the mechanisms of action 作用機序

Here we summarize the three systems involved, and the effects of essential oils and their constituents at the cellular and systems level. Many factors affect the rate of uptake of each chemical constituent included in essential oils. It is important to determine how much of each constituent is included in an essential oil and to use single chemical compounds to precisely test their effects.

ここでは、関連する3つのシステム、および 精油とその成分の効果を細胞およびシステムレベルで要約します。多くの要因は、精油に含まれる各化学成分の取り込み速度に影響を与えます。 精油に含まれる各成分どの程度含まれるかいるかを決定し、単体の化学成分を使用して その効果を正確に検証することが重要です。

Studies have shown synergistic influences of the constituents, which affect the mechanisms of action of the essential oil constituents. For the skin and digestive system, the chemical components of essential oils can directly activate gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors and transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels, whereas in the olfactory system, chemical components activate olfactory receptors. Here, GABA receptors and TRP channels could play a role, mostly when the signals are transferred to the olfactory bulb and the brain.


transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels:一過性受容体電位チャネル(TRP)チャネル
transient receptor 一過性受容体
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA):ガンマアミノ酪酸(GABA)受容体

Keywords: olfactory system; skin; gastro-intestine system; essential oils; oil constituents;

キーワード: 嗅覚系、皮膚、消化管系、精油、精油成分;


GABA - 脳科学辞典



温度感受性TRPチャンネル Science of Kampo Medicine 漢方医学 Vol.37 No.3 2013より

TRP チャネルの機能
TRP チャネルは細胞膜に存在するイオンチャネル型受容体の1 つであり,ヒトでは 6 つのサブファミリー,27 チャネルで構成される膨大なチャネル群です(図 1)1)1997 年に温度感受性TRP チャネルが発見されてから2),16年の間に9つのTRPチャネルが温度感受性であることがわかってきました 3)

ヒトの身体は外部の環境温度に応じて意識的に,あるいは無意識的に体温調節を行いながら深部体温を維持しています.環境温度の感知は,ヒトのみならず鳥類などの恒温動物をはじめ両生類,爬虫類,魚類などの変温動物,さらに無脊椎動物や単細胞生物など,多くの生物の生存にとって重要な機能の 1 つです.温度感受性Transient Receptor Potential(TRP)チャネルは,温度のみならず多くの化学的・物理的刺激を感受するセンサーとして多様な生体機能に関わっている.最近ではTRPチャネルが遺伝子疾患や消化器疾患,大腸がん,肺疾患などに関与していることが報告され注目を集めている.また,TRPV1チャネルは血管拡張や血流増加,腸管運動促進作用に関与することが明らかになってきた.ここではTRPV1チャネルの発見者でTRPチャネル研究の第一人者である富永真琴先生に,TRPチャネル研究の経緯と生体における機能について解説していただいた.



受容体 TRPV1 活性化温度閾値 43℃<

受容体 TRPV3 、活性化温度閾値32-39℃<
発現部位:皮膚・感覚神経・脳 脊髄・胃・大腸

受容体 TRPM8 活性化温度閾値<25-28℃

受容体 TRPA1  活性化温度閾値<17℃(?)

TRPV1 は酸の刺激でも活性化します.カプサイシンや熱, 酸は,いずれも痛みを引き起こすことから,TRPV1 の反応性は 痛み刺激を伝える神経が複数の 侵害刺激に反応することをよく 説明します.ほかにも黒胡椒の 辛み成分であるピペリンや,生 姜の辛み成分のジンゲロン,ジ ンゲロールなどもカプサイシン 受容体 TRPV1 に作用します. TRPV 1 活性化は灼熱感をもたらし,交感神経系を介して産熱も引き起こすことから,寒い地 域では,暖をとる意味でトウガ ラシを靴下や下着の中に入れた り,生姜風呂に入って体を温め たりするのです


December 06, 2018

バイオレット光線 エドガーケイシーヘルスケアより


この記事のなかで臓器の電気力のことが書いてあります。この電気力のことは周波数のことかと思いました。以前のブログ「精油の周波数」では健康な人の人体平均周波数は62 から 68 Hzと書いていました。これが低下すると病気になり、精油は人体の周波数を上げることが可能できるそうです。このような考え方があることを知りました。バイオレット光線も周波数を有しているので同じようなことが起きるのかと思いました。


The Violet Ray



Edgar Cayce Health Care


Education And Information Relating To Edgar Cayce Health Readings


Whatever happened to the violet ray, an electrical appliance recommended in over 900 Cayce readings? Once in common usage by physicians, now it is virtually a forgotten tool of conventional health care.


violet ray バイオレット光線

The Violet Ray was recommended in the readings for a host of disorders– poor circulation, nervous disorders, arthritis and rheumatism, hair and skin disorders, problems with digestion and elimination, female reproductive disorders, prostate disease, cataracts-even possession and schizophrenia. One of the most frequent recommendations concerned problems related to poor circulation. When the violet ray is applied, the resultant surge of blood to oxygen-starved tissues stimulates lymphatic and capillary circulation, clearing cellular toxins and strengthening body organs. Duration of treatment ranges from one to thirty minutes.


cataract 白内障
possession 憑依

The violet ray appliance is usually a hand-held device with a variety of glass applicators, such as the comb-rake and the bulb, which can be inserted in the base and used on the part of the body being treated. When the machine is turned on, a violet-colored electrical charge can be seen. It emits warmth.


hand-held device 手動操作機器

This high frequency appliance uses a sophisticated coil invented by the renowned scientist Nikola Tesla. It acts in a manner similar to a spark coil in a car. Utilizing a transformer the voltage is increased dramatically as it moves through the resonating coil. The device’s bulb contains a gas that ionizes and produces charged particles and that emanate from the surface. This combination of charged particles and high frequency produces a mild heating effect in the body. This heating of body tissue, called diathermy, increases the circulation, dilates superficial blood vessels, and promotes healing.

この高周波機器は、有名な科学者Nikola Teslaによって発明された洗練されたコイルを使用しています。それは自動車の点火コイルと同様に作用する。変圧器を利用すると、電圧が共振コイルを通って移動する際に電圧が劇的に増加する。装置の電球には、電離して荷電粒子を産生し、表面から発するガスが含まれています。荷電粒子と高周波のこの組み合わせは、体内で軽度の加熱効果をもたらす。ジアテルミーと呼ばれる身体組織のこの加熱は、循環を増加させ、表面血管を拡張し、治癒を促進する。

charged particles 荷電粒子
ionizes イオン化する、電離する。

A Cayce reading for a man with poor circulation recommended that he use the violet ray over the lower limbs every evening: “In five to six weeks, we will find the body more active mentally and physically and better fitted for physical activities.” (137-1)When recommended for someone with arthritis, it was said to relax the body, energize the nerves, and supply additional oxygen to cells and tissues. Generally the individual was advised to apply the bulb over the area where arthritic pain was felt, and along the spine.


The Violet Ray was recommended as a tonic for exhaustion and lethargy: This will give the ‘pick up’ or the stimulation that is needed for what might be called the recharging of the centers along the cerebrospinal system…” (1196-17) “To do this will prevent the central nervous system as to make for better coordination between the sympathetic and cerebrospinal nervous system.” This would strengthen and revitalize the entire body, giving “incentives to the nerve centers to become rejuvenated again….. ” (269-1)


exhaustion 疲労
lethargy 無気力
cerebrospinal system 脳脊髄系

According to Dr. McGarey, the violet ray was very common in the early 19OOs–and easily obtained from electrical and drug-supply houses nationwide – but today, since the rise in pharmaceutical medicine, it is far less common.


Venture Inward editor A. Robert Smith recalls being treated, as a child, with the violet ray machine for an earache and other conditions. “Our family physician, who was my grandfather, believed in the violet ray. He had a violet ray machine the size of an X-ray machine, as I recall it, and I would lie down underneath it while getting a treatment for my ear. It was painless, and I remember the neat part for me, as a kid, was having to wear goggles like an airplane pilot to protect my eyes from the light. I think he used it on my knee when I fell and had some deep abrasions. My sister recalls being treated for jaundice. It was a standard therapy in his office.”

Venture Inward 雑誌編集者 A.ロバート・スミスは幼児のように耳痛みやその他の症状のためにバイオレット光線装置で治療されたことを思い出します。「私の祖父であった私たちの家庭医はバイオレット光線を信じていました。私がそれを思い出すことに、彼がX線装置のサイズのバイオレット光線装置を持っていて、耳の治療を受けている間、私はその下に横たわっていました。それは痛かなくて、子供は光から眼を守るために飛行機のパイロットのようなゴーグルを着用しなければならなかったので、私とっては素敵な部分であることを覚えています。私が倒れて、いくつかの深い擦り傷になった時に、彼を膝の上で使っていたと思います。私の妹は黄疸の治療を思い出します。彼の診療所では標準的治療法でした」

earache 耳痛
abrasions 擦り傷

Dr. McGarey says, “it was once a favorite among osteopathic physicians to control infection without the use of antibiotics. Interestingly enough, scientists are only now beginning to recognize the profound power of light introduced into tissues to dissipate infection.”


osteopathic physicians オステオパシー医師

In fact, the medical science has confirmed what Cayce said: that the human body is a composite of electromagnetic vibrations. The characteristics of this electromagnetic flow within the body-today measured by sophisticated laboratory instruments-were foretold in great detail by Cayce, long before such technology existed.


Composite 複合物

This vibration might be visualized as an electromagnetic cloak that shields us from head to toe. Disturbances in this force field signal the beginnings of physical weakness and disease. Cayce noted in one reading that when the electrical force in an organ becomes weak in its ability to reproduce the balance necessary for the support of the physical body, that portion becomes deficient.


Conversely, if the electrical forces in the body are balanced, the body chemistry, the organs, tissues, bones, and nerves remain in a state of health. As a result, electricity was often recommended by the readings as an important therapeutic method for stimulating the body to heal. Dr. McGarey theorizes that “the primary healing effect of the Violet Ray is accomplished through it’s balancing and rejuvenating effect in the body’s electromagnetic shield.”


Due to its ability to heal skin tissue, skin specialists across the county still use the violet ray on clients with acne. Beauticians use it to increase the circulation in the scalp and stimulate hair growth in clients with “falling hair” or baldness.

肌の組織を治す力があるため、全国的に皮膚専門医は、依然として、にきびの患者さんにバイオレット光線を使用します。美容師は光線を使用して頭皮の循環を増加させ、 "抜け毛"または脱毛症で顧客の髪の成長を刺激する。

Bill Newlin, and A.R.E. Member from Ardmore, Pennsylvania, owns several violet ray machines, including one he found in a garage sale. It still works

Bill Newlin、A.R.E。ペンシルベニア州アードモアのメンバーは、ガレージセールで見つけたものを含め、いくつかのバイオレット光線装置を所有しています。それはまだ動いています。





内なるドクター―自然治癒力を発動させる、奇跡の処方箋 単行本 – 2002/11/30










マジョラムCO2 5ml・精油(バイオレットボトル充填)



April 22, 2017

表皮ケラチノサイトにサンダルウッドの香りに対する嗅覚受容体発見 Science dailyより

Olfactory receptors in the skin: Sandalwood scent facilitates wound healing, skin regeneration


Date: July 8, 2014






Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, researchers have discovered. This data indicate that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics.

Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, as researchers at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have discovered. Their data indicate that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics. The team headed by Dr Daniela Busse and Prof Dr Dr Dr med habil Hanns Hatt from the Department for Cellphysiology published their report in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

皮膚細胞にはサンダルウッドの香りに対する嗅覚受容体が有することをルール大学ボーフムの研究者が発見した。それらの受容体が活性化すると、細胞増殖が増加し、創傷治癒が改善することをそれらのデータが示しています。このメカニズムは新薬や化粧品の可能性ある出発点になります。細胞生理学部のDaniela Busse博士とDr. Prof. Dr Dr. Med habil Hanns Hatt博士が率いるチームは研究皮膚科学に報告書を発表しました。

Investigative Dermatology:研究皮膚科学

Humans have approximately 350 different types of olfactory receptors in the nose. The function of those receptors has also been shown to exist in, for example spermatozoa, the prostate, the intestine and the kidneys. The team from Bochum has now discovered them in keratinocytes -- cells that form the outermost layer of the skin.


spermatozoa 精子

Experiments with cultures of human skin cells


The RUB researchers studied the olfactory receptor that occurs in the skin, namely OR2AT4, and discovered that it is activated by a synthetic sandalwood scent, so-called Sandalore. Sandalwood aroma is frequently used in incense sticks and is a popular component in perfumes. The activated OR2AT4 receptor triggers a calcium-dependent signal pathway. That pathway ensures an increased proliferation and a quicker migration of skin cells -- processes which typically facilitate wound healing. In collaboration with the Dermatology Department at the University of Münster, the cell physiologists from Bochum demonstrated that effect in skin cell cultures and skin explants.


OR2AT4 :olfactory receptor family 2 subfamily AT member 4

skin explants.皮膚外植片

Additional olfactory receptors in skin detected


In addition to OR2AT4, the RUB scientists have also found a variety of other olfactory receptors in the skin, the function of which they are planning to characterise more precisely. "The results so far show that they possess therapeutic and cosmetic potential," says Prof Hanns Hatt. "Still, we mustn't forget that concentrated fragrances should be handled with care, until we have ascertained which functions the different types of olfactory receptors in skin cells have."

OR2AT4受容体に加えて、また、ルール大学ボーフムの科学者は皮膚における様々な他の受容体も発見しました。彼はそれらの機能をより正確に明らかにすることを計画しています。「これまでの結果は、それらが治療上および美容上の可能性があることを示しています」とHanns Hatt教授は述べています。「まだ、皮膚細胞の異なる種類の嗅覚受容体がどのような機能を有しているかを確認するまで、私たちは濃縮された香りを注深く扱うことを忘れてはいきない。」


嗅覚受容体(きゅうかくじゅようたい、Olfactory receptors)は嗅細胞(嗅覚受容神経)にあるGタンパク質結合受容体の一種である。脊椎動物ではこのタンパク質は嗅上皮に、昆虫では触角に位置する。精子細胞も匂い受容体を持ち、卵子を見つけるための走化性に関連すると考えられている。



カルシウムシグナリング(英:Calcium Signaling)とは細胞の機能を制御するカルシウムイオン(Ca2+)依存性の情報伝達経路である。脊椎動物では細胞質のCa濃度は低濃度であり、体内のほとんどのCaは骨などの硬組織や細胞内のCa貯蔵庫(Caストア)に貯蔵されている。これらのCaは何らかの刺激をきっかけとして細胞質に流入することにより細胞内のタンパク質と結合して、その機能を調節を行い、細胞内情報伝達機構を制御することが知られている。金属原子が正の電荷を帯びたものであるCa2+は非常に単純なものであるが、細胞内のCa濃度の変化は幅広い細胞応答へとつながっており、セカンドメッセンジャーの一つである。







April 20, 2017

皮膚の色素細胞で嗅覚受容体発見 Science dailyより

Olfactory receptor discovered in pigment cells of the skin


pigment cells 色素細胞

June 2, 2016





Researchers have demonstrated the existence of an olfactory receptor in pigment-producing cells in human skin, the so-called melanocytes. They have shown that the violet-like scent Beta-Ionone can activate the receptor.


Researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum were the first ones to prove the existence of an olfactory receptor in pigment-producing cells in human skin, the so-called melanocytes. The team headed by Prof Dr Dr Dr habil. Hanns Hatt demonstrated that the violet-like scent Beta-Ionone can activate the receptor.

ルール大学ボーフムの研究者は、メラノサイトと呼ばれるヒト皮膚の色素産生細胞において嗅覚受容体の存在することを初めて証明した。Prof Dr Dr Dr habil. Hanns Hattが率いるチームは、バイオレット様な匂いβ -イオノンは嗅覚受容体を活性化で

Together with colleagues from Friedrich Schiller University Jena and the university hospital in Jena, the researchers at Bochum's Department for Cellphysiology reported their findings in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.


Cellphysiology ;細胞生理学
Biological Chemistry 生化学

Cause of black skin cancer


The group identified the olfactory receptor 51E2 in cell cultures of melanocytes from human skin. Those cells produce the black melanin which renders tanned skin. Excessive growth of melanocytes may cause too much pigmentation and possibly trigger black skin cancer.


Signalling pathways in cells identified


The researchers identified the signalling pathway in detail that is activated by the 51E2 receptor. If a fitting odorant binds to the receptor, a reaction cascade is triggered similar to the one occurring in olfactory cells of the nose: the concentration of calcium ions increases.


cascade reaction カスケード反応

This, in turn, activates the signalling pathways at the end of which phosphate groups are transferred to specific enzymes, such as MAP-kinases. The newly detected receptor uses this mechanism to regulate enzyme activity and, consequently, cell growth and melanin production.


phosphate groups リン酸基

Starting point for melanoma therapy


"The receptor and its activating odor molecule might constitute a new starting point for a melanoma therapy," says Hanns Hatt. If healthy melanocytes turn into tumour cells, they strongly increase the proliferation rate, but they focus less efficiently on their actual functions. The Beta-Ionone odorant appears to affect these properties using the relevant receptor. Hanns Hatt's team is currently analysing the causes and effects in melanoma cells gained through biopsies.

「受容体およびその活性化匂い分子はメラノーマ治療の新たな出発点となるかもしれません」とHanns Hatt氏は述べています。健康なメラノサイトが腫瘍細胞に変化すると、それらは著しく上昇するが、彼らはそれらの実際の機能にあまり効率的に焦点を当てていない。β-イオノンの匂いは関連の受容体を用いて、これらの特性に影響を与えるようであろう。Hanns Hatt's チームは、現在、生検で得られたメラノーマ細胞の原因と効果を分析しています。

biopsies 生検

The scent researcher from Bochum expects the newly detected receptor to have other potential applications: "With its help, we might be able to treat pigmentation disorders of the skin, and they might also be used in tanning products," says Hatt.


pigmentation disorders 色素沈着障害



イオノン(英語 ionone)、別名ヨノン(ドイツ語・オランダ語 Jonon)はテルペノイドの一種である。二重結合の位置が違う3種類の異性体があり、それぞれα-イオノン、β-イオノン、γ-イオノンと呼ばれる。スミレの花のようなにおいを持つ、無色または黄色みを帯びた液体である。においは異性体ごとに異なる。


ルール大学ボーフム(ドイツ語: Ruhr-Universität Bochum)は、ドイツ・ノルトライン=ヴェストファーレン州ボーフムにある州立大学。





August 08, 2013

アロマセラピスト&精神科医(2)Robert Tisserand Blog I’m just sayingより

Florian Birkmayer: aromatherapists & psychiatrist


上記記事はRobert Tisserand氏のBlog I’m just sayingからです。

What type of complaints do you see most?


The most common complaints I see are related to traumic experiences, as well as anxiety, depression, insomnia and side-effects from medications.


traumatic experiences 外傷的体験

Do you mostly use single oils or blends? Why?

あなたは主に単品精油またはブレンド精油を使用しますか? 何故?

I use both single oils as well as blends of up to four or five oils. In my psychiatric practice I’ve met many clients that are on multiple medications, which increases the chance of drug interactions and side effects and one of my core approaches is to simplify medication regimens as much as possible. Similarly when I use oils I try to use a minimum number – it’s more elegant and it’s gentler on the client’s brain.


multiple medications 多重薬剤
regimen 治療計画

Do you allow some clients to pick their own oil or blend?


Most of the oils and blends I offer are customized for the individual client with input from them. During a visit, I select a few oils that I feel might be helpful and let the clients smell them and choose the oils that agree with them. The olfactory nerves go directly to the limbic system, which is the part of the brain that processes emotions, and thus how a client reacts to a smell to me is an indication of what their limbic system may need at that time.


What do you hope for in terms of the effects of the oils?


There are many specific effects related to sleep, anxiety, mood, but above all I hope to restore a client’s sense of self-efficacy, so they can cope better with their lives and that the oils become ‘tools in their toolbox of coping skills.’


What are some of your favorites, and what do you mostly use them for?


I have many favorites, but recently I’ve been particularly fond of a simple combination of melissa (lemon balm) and palo santo essential oils which I have given several clients with anxiety and trauma-related issues and it appears to allow people to center themselves and let go of feeling overwhelmed.


Can you describe one or two of your cases where essential oils have played a major role in mental health improvement?


I have a simple blend that I call Sleep Oil that I developed and started using for myself and then shared with colleagues and then with clients – insomnia is a very common problem – and the response has been overwhelming. People are always asking me for more Sleep Oil, giving it to relatives and raving about it. One of the cool things about using this is that it’s applied to the skin. Many people are used to having to ingest something, a medication or a supplement, to get help with insomnia, so when they use Sleep Oil, they unlearn that they need to ingest something to sleep and that goes a long way towards restoring a natural sleep pattern.


Another example: As you may know, some psychiatric medications cause sexual side effects, which can be very distressing. I’ve had success with several clients in overcoming these side effects by using ylang-ylang diluted in a carrier oil and topically applied.


So how exactly are your essential oils used – does it always involve topical application? To skin?

それで、どのように正確にあなた精油は使用されるのですか、それは常に局所塗布が関与するのですか? 皮膚に?

I’ve been using topical application, which I tell clients to think of as anointing themselves as well as sprays which I tell clients to consider their ‘signature scent’.


Apart from treating clients, what are some of your other activities?


One of the goals of The Birkmayer Institute is to offer seminars on a wide range of holistic topics, including aromatherapy. I’ve been teaching a monthly seminar on C.G. Jung’s Red Book for the past year, which has been a remarkable journey. Apart from essential oils and Jung, my greatest passion is equine assisted therapy and I have been blessed that my relationship to horses has gotten deeper and more profound through providing equine assisted therapy and experiencing the healing power of horses. Several times a year, I host a retreat for healers called ‘Horses Healing Healers.’Do you see any signs that conventional medicine is becoming any more open to the use of unconventional therapy, especially essential oils? Could aromatherapy transform psychiatry?


c.g. jung red book カール・グスタフ・ユングの赤の書
equine 馬
equine assisted therapy 乗馬療法
conventional medicine 伝統医学

The clients are very eager for new, more gentle and transformative approaches. However, the field of psychiatry acts reserved and skeptical, even more than providers in other medical specialties, at least on the surface. In private I’ve had several colleagues, especially nurses but also a few physicians, express great interest. My dream is to organize a conference on holistic – especially aromatic – psychiatry in the next couple years, as I suspect there’s a lot of hunger for knowledge.


transformative approach.変容的アプローチ

Dr. Birkmayer received his B.A. from Princeton University and his M.D. from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. He completed his psychiatry residency at the University of New Mexico. He has previously served as the director of the Dual Diagnosis Clinic at University of New Mexico Psychiatric Center and as the director of the Substance Use Disorders program at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Albuquerque, NM. He was invited to be a full member of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. He has a long-standing commitment to working with the underserved, e.g. working with Na’anizhozhi Center Inc., a Navajo-tradition based detox and rehab center in Gallup, NM and providing tele-psychiatry to underserved areas. He views himself as a bridge-builder between different medical worlds and works closely and respectfully with a wide range of healers.

ビルクマイアー博士は、プリンストン大学で学士号およびコロンビア医科大学で医学博士を受け取った。彼はニューメキシコ大学で精神科のレジデント修練を終了した。以前、彼はニューメキシコ大学精神医療センターの二重診断クリニックディレクターとしておよびニューメキシコ州、アルバカーキの退役軍人医療センターで物質使用障害治療プログラムのディレクターとして務めました。彼は精神医学発展の学術団体の成会員になるよう招待された。彼は恵まれていない人々と一緒に働くことに長年コミットをしてきた。例えば、ニューメキシコ州、ギャラップのナバホ族伝統に基づく解毒・リハビリセンター、Na’anizhozhi Center Incで働き、恵まれない地域に遠隔精神医療を提供しています。彼は、様々な医学世界と幅広いヒーラーと緊密かつ尊厳のあるワークとの橋渡し役として見てる。

Substance Use Disorders program 物質使用障害治療プログラム
dual diagnosis 二重診断 
二重診断はDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders“ 精神障害の診断と統計の手引き”に基づき行われる。


アロマセラピスト&精神科医(1)Robert Tisserand Blog: I’m just sayingより





January 20, 2013

柴胡(サイコ)精油について セラピスト 渡辺育子さんより






セラピスト 渡辺育子









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June 16, 2011











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February 23, 2011



有効な精油(Useful Oils)



帯状疱疹(Herpes zosterまたはshingles)は神経節感覚根の急性炎症である。この病気は天然痘ウイルスと密接に関係しちるウイルスによって引き起こされる。一般的には中高年または老年の方が侵される。ウイルスは脊髄に侵入するまえに感覚神経に影響して、冒された神経によって支配されている皮膚部位上に水膨れのクラスターを引き起こす。痛みは水泡が現れる前に感じて、時々水疱が消えた後に何週間または何カ月持続する。


帯状疱疹は、水痘を引き起こす同じウイルス・水痘帯状疱疹ウイルス(Varicella zoster virus)によって発症する病気である。帯状疱疹発症の機会は、ストレス、がん、および免疫系不全患者など要因によって増加する。

臨床的検討(Clinical Feature )



治療的戦術(Therapeutic Strategy)




アロマセラピー トリートント(Aromatherapy Treatment)





他のトリートメント(Other Treatment)

*L-リジン アミノ酸は治癒および帯状疱疹を引き起こすウルスに戦うために受容である。




上記の記事はThe Complete Guide to AromatherapyのThe Nervous System/Shinglesを翻訳したものです。



リアノン ハリス女史来日セミナー:がん治療と緩和ケアにおけるアドバンス臨床アロマセラピーのセミナー3月25日(金)〜28日(月)(4日間)

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