April 20, 2022

体内の嗅覚受容体は病気を嗅ぎ分けるのに役立つかもしれない。Science dailyより

Smell receptors in the body could help sniff out disease



Olfactory cells found throughout the body may help or harm depending on location


Full Story

A review of more than 200 studies reveals that olfactory receptors -- proteins that bind to odors that aid the sense of smell -- perform a wide range of mostly unknown functions outside the nose. The function of extra-nasal olfactory receptors has the potential to be used in the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions such as cancer. The article is published in the July issue of Physiological Reviews.


Olfactory, or smell, receptors were originally thought to be only in the sensory nerve cells (neurons) of nasal cavity tissues. However, more recent and extensive study suggests that the receptors "occur in nearly the entire human body, [and] they appear to be substantially more functionally important than previously suggested," researchers from Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany wrote. In addition to the receptors playing a major role in the sense of smell, "several essential physiological and pathophysiological processes have been described as targeted by human [olfactory receptors], including path finding, cell growth, [cell death], migration and secretion."


The research team summarized the location and purpose of certain types of olfactory receptors, including those that may be beneficial to general health:

研究チームは 総合的な健康状態に有益と思われるものを含む、ある種の嗅覚受容体の位置と目的についてまとめています。

*Receptors present in heart muscle cells may be a metabolic regulator of heart function.


metabolic regulator 代謝因子

*Receptors activated in the immune system have been seen to promote the death of certain types of leukemia cells.


*Smell receptors in the liver reduce the spread of liver cancer cells.


*Receptors in the skin increase the regeneration of skin cells and help speed wound healing.


The review also reveals ways in which olfactory receptors may affect the development of disease, including:


*Receptors concentrated in the prostate tissue, especially in men with prostate cancer, contribute to the reduction or progression of the disease.


*Receptors in the colon may reduce the growth of colon cancer cells.


*Receptors in the digestive tract may cause chronic diarrhea or constipation but may


The existence of olfactory receptors outside the nose -- either positive or negative -- plays an important role in disease progression and physiological function but is not yet fully understood. Their role as a possible biomarker for disease requires more research, the authors said. Study "must be expanded to develop promising clinical strategies in the future," the researchers wrote.



嗅覚受容体は、(ポジティブまたはネガティブ)の存在のことを読んで、Medicine Hands Massage Therapy for People with Cancerに出てくるがん遺伝子のことを思い出し紹介します。


*Proto-oncogene がん原遺伝子

Proto-oncogene、which control growth and tissue repair. The defective version of these genes are known as oncogenes. Their expression results in excessive cell proliferationMutation within control genes also cause failure of cell’s regulatory system that induce apoptosis (programed cell death) when cell senses it cannot repair damage to its own DNA


oncogene がん遺伝子

*Tumor suppress genes がん抑制遺伝子

Tumor suppress genes normally regulate cell growth in an measured fashion; they stifle tumor growth acting a braking system that halts inappropriate growth. When they are inactivated by mutation, uncontrolled cell cell proliferation is allowed to go unchecked.



November 05, 2021


Modulation of the Cannabinoid System: A New Perspective for the Treatment of the Alzheimer's Disease





The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is somewhat complex and has yet to be fully understood. As the effectiveness of the therapy currently available for AD has proved to be limited, the need for new drugs has become increasingly urgent. The modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECBS) is one of the potential therapeutic approaches that is attracting a growing amount of interest. The ECBS consists of endogenous compounds and receptors.


endogenous cannabinoid system (ECBS):内因性カンナビノイドシステム

The receptors CB1 and CB2 have already been well characterized: CB1 receptors, which are abundant in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum, regulate memory function and cognition. It has been suggested that the activation of CB1 receptors reduces intracellular Ca concentrations, inhibits glutamate release and enhances neurotrophin expression and

basal ganglia :大脳基底核管
cerebellum  : 小脳
intracellular Ca concentrations: 細胞内Ca濃度,
neurotrophin :ニューロトロフィン(神経栄養因子の一群)

CB2 receptors are expressed, though to a lesser extent, in the central nervous system, particularly in the microglia and immune system cells involved in the release of cytokines.CB2 receptors have been shown to be upregulated in neuritic plaque-associated microglia in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of patients, which suggests that these receptors play a role in the inflammatory pathology of AD.


neuritic plaques:老人性プラークまたは神経突起斑
entorhinal cortex  嗅内皮質

The role of the ECBS in AD is supported by cellular and animal models. By contrast, few clinical studies designed to investigate therapies aimed at reducing behaviour disturbances, especially night-time agitation, eating behaviour and aggressiveness, have yielded positive results. In this review, we will describe how the manipulation of the ECBS offers a potential approach to the treatment of AD.


behaviour disturbances 行動障害

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; CB1 receptors; CB2 receptors; dementia; endocannabinoid system; new therapeutic approach.

キーワード アルツハイマー病、CB1受容体、CB2受容体、認知症、エンドカンナビノイドシステム、新しい治療法.のアプローチ





フランキンセンス(インド)CO2 5ml・精油(バイオレットボトル充填)




December 26, 2019

迷走神経は腸脳軸に沿ってセロトニンを運ぶことができる Psychology todayより

The Vagus Nerve May Carry Serotonin Along the Gut-Brain Axis



vagus nerve 迷走神経

gut brain axis 腸脳軸

SSRIs may activate vagus nerve dependent gut-to-brain serotonin signaling.


 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, SSRI: 選択的セロトニン再取り込み阻害薬

 When Prozac was introduced in 1987, it made a big splash as the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant for the treatment of major depressive disorder.


 prozac プロザック(抗うつ薬)

major depressive disorder 大うつ病性障害

Prozac and Sarafem are brand names for a drug called "fluoxetine," which was first discovered by Eli Lilly in 1972. Since the patent for this drug expired in 2001, fluoxetine is available as a generic FDA-approved prescription for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic attacks, and some eating disorders.



フルオキセチン (: Fluoxetine) は、選択的セロトニン再取り込み阻害薬(SSRI)に分類される抗うつ薬の1つである。商品名プロザック (Prozac) としてアメリカ合衆国のイーライリリー・アンド・カンパニー社から発売され、また後発医薬品も存在する。

generic ジェネリック

obsessive-compulsive disorder 強迫性障害

panic attacks パニック発作

Historically, most experts and consumers thought fluoxetine worked by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin in the brain, and that the antidepressant effects of this drug occurred solely from the "neck up." However, there is still a surprising amount of uncertainty about how SSRIs actually work.


reuptake 再取り込み

Because 90 percent of the human body's serotonin is produced in the gut, one current theory is that fluoxetine might boost the amount of serotonin produced "below the neck."


While the 21st-century debate about SSRIs rages on, a drug-free alternative for treatment-resistant depression called "vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)" was approved by the FDA in 2005 for severe unipolar and bipolar depression. VNS typically involves a small, silver-dollar sized device that is surgically implanted below the skin near the collar bone and works like a pacemaker to stimulate the vagus nerve.

SSRIについての21世紀の議論が激化する中、2005年にFDA(食品医薬品局)により、重度の単極および双極うつ病に対して、「迷走神経刺激(VNS)」と呼ばれる治療抵抗性うつ病の薬物なし代替が承認されました。 VNSは通常、鎖骨近くの皮膚の下に外科的に埋め込まれ、迷走神経を刺激するペースメーカーのような働きをする、銀色の小さなサイズのデバイスを含みます。

unipolar and bipolar depression 単極および双極うつ病

a drug-free alternative 薬物を使用しない代替

treatment-resistant depression 治療抵抗性うつ病

vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) 迷走神経刺激療法

collar bone 鎖骨

In recent years, researchers at McMaster University's Brain-Body Institute (Canada) have been investigating a possible link between SSRI antidepressant medications, serotonin levels in the gut, and the role that vagus nerve stimulation might play in boosting gut-to-brain transport of serotonin, which appears to rely on the vagus nerve.

近年マックマスター大学、のBrain-Body Institute(カナダ)の研究者は、SSRI抗うつ薬、腸内のセロトニンレベルと迷走神経刺激が迷走神経に依存しているようなセルトニンの脳への輸送を促進する際に果たす可能性のある役割との相関関係を調査しています。

Notably, after a vagotomy?which surgically cuts off gut-to-brain communication via the vagus nerve?SSRIs lose their ability to relieve depression-like symptoms in mice.


vagotomy 迷走神経切断術

As part of the bidirectional gut-brain axis, afferent vagal nerves send signals from the bottom-up. There is reason to believe that these vagus nerve pathways might serve as a type of "serotonin superhighway" between the gut and the brain.



afferent vagal nerve 求心性迷走神経

A few days ago, the team at McMaster University?who've been conducting research in mice about how SSRIs and the vagus nerve might work in tandem?published a study, "Oral Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Activate Vagus Nerve Dependent Gut-Brain Signalling," in the journal Scientific Reports. The title of this paper sums up the main takeaway of this research: SSRIs may activate the vagus nerve in a way that facilitates gut-brain serotonin signaling.


数日前、SSRIと迷走神経がどのように連携するかについてマウスで研究を行ってきた、マックマスター大学のチームは、he journal Scientific Reportsに「経口セロトニン再取り込み阻害薬が迷走神経依存性腸脳シグナル伝達を活性化する」研究を発表しました。





 「脳腸軸」という言葉を聞いたことがあるでしょうか? 「脳腸軸」とは(脳と腸は自律神経系や液性因子(ホルモンやサイトカインなど)を介して密に関連していることが分かっています。この双方向的な関連を「脳腸軸(brain-gut axis)」または「脳腸相関(brain-gut interaction)」と呼ぶということ…。今回は、そんな「脳腸軸」についてわかっていること、わかっていないことをご紹介します。







August 18, 2017

女性は男性よりも活発な脳を有している。Science dailyより

Women have more active brains than men


Largest functional brain imaging study to date identifies specific brain differences between women and men, according to a new report in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease




In the largest functional brain imaging study to date, the Amen Clinics (Newport Beach, CA) compared 46,034 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging studies provided by nine clinics, quantifying differences between the brains of men and women. The study is published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.


single photon emission computed tomography (spect) 単一光子放射断層撮影

Lead author, psychiatrist Daniel G. Amen, MD, founder of Amen Clinics, Inc., commented, "This is a very important study to help understand gender-based brain differences. The quantifiable differences we identified between men and women are important for understanding gender-based risk for brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Using functional neuroimaging tools, such as SPECT, are essential to developing precision medicine brain treatments in the future."


The brains of women in the study were significantly more active in many more areas of the brain than men, especially in the prefrontal cortex, involved with focus and impulse control, and the limbic or emotional areas of the brain, involved with mood and anxiety. The visual and coordination centers of the brain were more active in men. SPECT can measure blood perfusion in the brain. Images acquired from subjects at rest or while performing various cognitive tasks will show different blood flow in specific brain regions.


prefrontal cortex 前頭前皮質
impulse control 衝動制御
blood perfusion 血液灌流
cognitive tasks 認知課題

Subjects included 119 healthy volunteers and 26,683 patients with a variety of psychiatric conditions such as brain trauma, bipolar disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia/psychotic disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 128 brain regions were analyzed for subjects at baseline and while performing a concentration task.

被験者には、119人の健康なボランティアと、脳外傷、双極性障害、気分障害、統合失調症障害/精神病性障害、注意欠如・多動性障害 (ADHD). などの様々な精神症状の患者26,683人が含まれていた。ベースライン時および集中作業中の被験者合計128の脳領域が分析された。

brain trauma 脳外傷
bipolar disorders 双極性障害
schizophrenic disorder 統合失調症障害
psychotic disorders 精神病性障害
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 注意欠如・多動性障害 (ADHD). 

Understanding these differences is important because brain disorders affect men and women differently.Women have significantly higher rates of Alzheimer's disease, depression, which is itself is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, and anxiety disorders, while men have higher rates of (ADHD), conduct-related problems, and incarceration (by 1,400%).

これらの違いを理解することは重要で、なぜなら、脳障害は男性と女性に異なる影響を与えます。女性は、アルツハイマー病、アルツハイマー病因子を含むうつ病および不安障害の発病率が有意に高くて、一方、男性は、注意欠如・多動性障害 (ADHD).  行動関連の病気、および嵌頓ヘルニア(1,400%まで).の発病率が高いです。

conduct-related problems 行動関連の病気

Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Dean of the College of Sciences at The University of Texas at San Antonio, Dr. George Perry said, "Precisely defining the physiological and structural basis of gender differences in brain function will illuminate Alzheimer's disease and understanding our partners."


The study findings of increased prefrontal cortex blood flow in women compared to men may explain why women tend to exhibit greater strengths in the areas of empathy, intuition, collaboration, self-control, and appropriate concern. The study also found increased blood flow in limbic areas of the brains of women, which may also partially explain why women are more vulnerable to anxiety, depression, insomnia, and eating disorders.


limbic areas 大脳辺縁系の領域

the Amen Clinicsを調べていたらみつけたサイトです。

ダニエル・エイメン(Daniel Gregory Amen、1954年 - )[1]は、アメリカの精神科医で[2]、脳障害(英語版)の専門家であり[3]エイメン・クリニック(英語版)の所長であり[4]、ニューヨーク・タイムズ・ベストセラーの作家である[5]。

エイメン・クリニックは注意欠陥・多動性障害 (ADHD) や他の障害の患者のための医療を提供している。そこではエイメンによる実験として、彼の主張するこれらの障害の下位分類を同定する診断ツールとして単一光子放射断層撮影 (SPECT) が用いられている[6]。しかし、エイメンによる精神医学と神経学の診断を補助するSPECTスキャンの使用は、立証されていない主張に基づいており広く批判されている。









March 06, 2017


Effects of Cannabis on Alzheimer's Disease investigated in mice




Some effects of Cannabis can improve the consumption of energy by the brain, which is deficient in Alzheimer's Disease, according to the results of a study led by Cellular Neurosciences and Biology Center (CNC), University of Coimbra (UC), Portugal and the Cajal Institute - Centre for Biomedical Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, in Spain.

ポルトガル、コインブラ大学(UC)、細胞神経科学・生物学センター(CNC)およびスペイン、神経変性疾患における生物医学研究センター・Cajal Institute率いる研究結果によると、大麻のある種の効果は、アルツハイマー病で不足している脳のエネルギー消費を改善することが出来る。

University of Coimbra (UC)  コインブラ大学
Cellular Neurosciences 細胞神経科学
Neurodegenerative Diseases  神経変性疾患

The future challenge of this discovery in mice, recently published in the journal Neuropharmacology, lies in the separation of negative and positive effects of Cannabis consumption.


CB1 and CB2 receptors

カンナビノイドCB1およびCB 2受容体


The major psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) acts on two receptors, "CB1" and "CB2", located in the brain, which are distinguished as "bad police and good police." The CB1 receptors are associated with neuronal death, mental disorders and addiction to various drugs or alcohol. In contrast, CB2 receptors nullify many of the negative actions of CB1, protecting neurons by promoting glucose consumption (energy) by the brain and reducing dependence on drugs.

マリファナの主要精神活性成分であるテトラヒドロカンナビノール(THC)は、“悪い警官と良い警官”区別される脳内に存在する"カンナビノイドCB1" と"カンナビノイドCB2"の2つの受容体に作用する。CB1受容体は、神経細胞死、神経障害および様々な薬物またはアルコール依存に関係する。対照的に、CB2受容体は、CB1の多くの負の作用を無効にし、ブドウ糖消費(エネルギー)促進することによって神経細胞を保護し、薬物依存を減少させる。

psychoactive 向精神の
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)  テトラヒドロカンナビノール
neuronal death 神経細胞死
lucose consumption ブドウ糖消費

Attila Köfalvi, first author of the article, explains that "through various laboratory techniques, we conclude that the CB2 receptor, when stimulated by chemically modified THC analogues to interact only with the CB2 receptor without activating the CB1, avoiding the psychotropic effects and keeping beneficial effects, promotes increased glucose uptake in the brain."

この記事の筆頭著者であるAttila Köfalvi,は、“様々な実験技術を通して、 CB1を活性化せずにCB2受容体とのみに相互作用させるために化学修飾されたTHC類似体によって刺激されると、CB2受容体は向精神効果を回避し、有益な効果を維持し、脳におけるブドウ糖取り込みを促進させる”と述べている。

analogues 類似体
psychotropic effects 向精神効果

Effect beyond neurons


Additional experiments with other techniques showed that this effect of CB2 is not limited to neurons but extends to other brain cells that help the functioning of neurons, the astrocytes. "In the future, this discovery could pave the way for a palliative therapy in Alzheimer's disease," notes the researcher.


palliative therapy 緩和医療



大麻(アサ(cannabis sativa)の未熟果穂を含む枝先および葉)に含まれる炭素数21の化合物群をカンナビノイドという。主要なカンナビノイドは、強い中枢作用を有する△9-テトラヒドロカンナビノール(THC)、中枢作用はないが強い抗痙攣作用や薬物代謝酵素阻害作用を有するカンナビジオールおよびそれらの酸化成績体のカンナビノールである。THCは、マリファナを摂取すると、時間感覚・空間感覚の混乱、多幸感、記憶の障害、痛覚の低下、幻覚などの精神神経反応を誘発する。カンナビノイド受容体として、7回膜貫通、Gタンパク質(Gi/Go)共役型のCB1受容体とCB2受容体の2つがある。CB1受容体は脳などで多量に発現しており、神経伝達の抑制的制御に関与していると考えられている。一方、CB2受容体は脾臓や扁桃腺など、免疫系の臓器や細胞に多く発現しており、炎症反応や免疫応答の調節に関与していると考えられている。内在性のリガンドとして最初に単離されたN-アラキドノイルエタノールアミン(アナンダミド)は、カンナビノイドレセプターの弱い部分アゴニストである。その後発見された2-アラキドノイルグリセロールが、カンナビノイドレセプターの生理的なリガンドと考えられている。(2005.10.25 掲載)(2009.1.16 改訂)(2014.7.更新)




精油のお話会で精油化学成分と受容体との関係を説明しました。そのときにβカリオフィレンがカンナビノイドCB 2受容体に結合し、局所麻酔作用を発現することを説明しました。今回の記事でCB 2受容体がアルツハイマー病に関係していることを知り、翻訳しました。この記事は、前回のイラン、世界初のアルツハイマー治療のためのハーブ草剤(シソ科植物)を発売で見つけました。



August 16, 2016


Neuroscientists reverse memories' emotional associations: Brain circuit that links feelings to memories manipulated

神経科学者は記憶の情動連関を反転させる:感情を操作された記憶にリンクする脳回路Science dailyより

Most memories have some kind of emotion associated with them: Recalling the week you just spent at the beach probably makes you feel happy, while reflecting on being bullied provokes more negative feelings.


A new study from MIT neuroscientists reveals the brain circuit that controls how memories become linked with positive or negative emotions. Furthermore, the researchers found that they could reverse the emotional association of specific memories by manipulating brain cells with optogenetics -- a technique that uses light to control neuron activity.


MIT(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)マサチューセッツ工科大学

The findings, described in the Aug. 27 issue of Nature, demonstrated that a neuronal circuit connecting the hippocampus and the amygdala plays a critical role in associating emotion with memory. This circuit could offer a target for new drugs to help treat conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, the researchers say.


"In the future, one may be able to develop methods that help people to remember positive memories more strongly than negative ones," says Susumu Tonegawa, the Picower Professor of Biology and Neuroscience, director of the RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, and senior author of the paper.


RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics 理研-MIT神経回路遺伝学研究センター
MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory MITピカワー学習・記憶研究所、

The paper's lead authors are Roger Redondo, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute postdoc at MIT, and Joshua Kim, a graduate student in MIT's Department of Biology.

論文の筆頭著者は、MITのハワード・ヒューズ医療研究所ポストドクターRoger Redondo,、およびMIT生物学科の大学院生、Joshua Kim,です。

Shifting memories


Memories are made of many elements, which are stored in different parts of the brain. A memory's context, including information about the location where the event took place, is stored in cells of the hippocampus, while emotions linked to that memory are found in the amygdala.


memory's context 記憶の文脈

Previous research has shown that many aspects of memory, including emotional associations, are malleable. Psychotherapists have taken advantage of this to help patients suffering from depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, but the neural circuitry underlying such malleability is not known.



In this study, the researchers set out to explore that malleability with an experimental technique they recently devised that allows them to tag neurons that encode a specific memory, or engram. To achieve this, they label hippocampal cells that are turned on during memory formation with a light-sensitive protein called channelrhodopsin. From that point on, any time those cells are activated with light, the mice recall the memory encoded by that group of cells.


encode 符号化する
memory engram 記憶痕跡(エングラム)
light-sensitive protein 光感受性タンパク質
channelrhodopsin チャネルロドプシン

Last year, Tonegawa’s lab used this technique to implant, or “incept,” false memories in mice by reactivating engrams while the mice were undergoing a different experience.In the new study, the researchers wanted to investigate how the context of a memory becomes linked to a particular emotion.First, they used their engram-labeling protocol to tag neurons associated with either a rewarding experience (for male mice, socializing with a female mouse) or an unpleasant experience (a mild electrical shock). In this first set of experiments, the researchers labeled memory cells in a part of the hippocampus called the dentate gyrus.


false memory過誤記憶
dentate gyrus 歯状回

Two days later, the mice were placed into a large rectangular arena.For three minutes, the researchers recorded which half of the arena the mice naturally preferred. Then, for mice that had received the fear conditioning, the researchers stimulated the labeled cells in the dentate gyrus with light whenever the mice went into the preferred side. The mice soon began avoiding that area, showing that the reactivation of the fear memory had been successful.


The reward memory could also be reactivated: For mice that were reward-conditioned, the researchers stimulated them with light whenever they went into the less-preferred side, and they soon began to spend more time there, recalling the pleasant memory.


A couple of days later, the researchers tried to reverse the mice's emotional responses. For male mice that had originally received the fear conditioning, they activated the memory cells involved in the fear memory with light for 12 minutes while the mice spent time with female mice.For mice that had initially received the reward conditioning, memory cells were activated while they received mild electric shocks.


Next, the researchers again put the mice in the large two-zone arena. This time, the mice that had originally been conditioned with fear and had avoided the side of the chamber where their hippocampal cells were activated by the laser now began to spend more time in that side when their hippocampal cells were activated, showing that a pleasant association had replaced the fearful one. This reversal also took place in mice that went from reward to fear conditioning.


Altered connections


The researchers then performed the same set of experiments but labeled memory cells in the basolateral amygdala, a region involved in processing emotions. This time, they could not induce a switch by reactivating those cells -- the mice continued to behave as they had been conditioned when the memory cells were first labeled.

次に、研究者は、同一のセットの実験を行ったが、情動処理に関与する領域、基底外側扁桃体の記憶細胞に標識を付けた。今回は、彼らは、それらの細胞を再活性化することによってスイッチを誘発することができませんでした - マウスは記憶細胞が最初に標識を付けられたときの条件で引き続き行動した。

basolateral amygdala 扁桃体基底外側部

This suggests that emotional associations, also called valences, are encoded somewhere in the neural circuitry that connects the dentate gyrus to the amygdala, the researchers say. A fearful experience strengthens the connections between the hippocampal engram and fear-encoding cells in the amygdala, but that connection can be weakened later on as new connections are formed between the hippocampus and amygdala cells that encode positive associations.


Valence 快の誘発度
"That plasticity of the connection between the hippocampus and the amygdala plays a crucial role in the switching of the valence of the memory," Tonegawa says.


Plasticity 可塑性

These results indicate that while dentate gyrus cells are neutral with respect to emotion, individual amygdala cells are precommitted to encode fear or reward memory. The researchers are now trying to discover molecular signatures of these two types of amygdala cells. They are also investigating whether reactivating pleasant memories has any effect on depression, in hopes of identifying new targets for drugs to treat depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.


分子指標 molecular signature

David Anderson, a professor of biology at the California Institute of Technology, says the study makes an important contribution to neuroscientists' fundamental understanding of the brain and also has potential implications for treating mental illness.

David Anderson,〈カリフォルニア工科大学、生物学教授〉は、脳についての脳神経科学者の基本的理解への重要な貢献になり、また、精神病治療に対する潜在的意味を有していると述べています。

"This is a tour de force of modern molecular-biology-based methods for analyzing processes, such as learning and memory, at the neural-circuitry level. It's one of the most sophisticated studies of this type that I've seen," he says.


The research was funded by the RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and the JPB Foundation.


tour de force  離れ業、大手腕、力作


情動 脳科学辞典より



海馬 - 脳科学辞典

海馬は大脳側頭葉の内側部で側脳室下角底部に位置し、エピソード記憶等の顕在性記憶の形成に不可欠な皮質部位である(図1)。記憶形成に関与する側頭葉皮質部位には、嗅内野、傍海馬台、前海馬台、海馬台、海馬(アンモン角)、歯状回がある。また、海馬台、海馬、歯状回に、脳梁上部に位置し、中隔方向に連続する構造物である脳梁灰白層を加えて集合的に海馬体 (hippocampal formation) と呼ぶ。

扁桃体 情動の学習


符号化 脳科学辞典より



遺伝学(optogenetics、オプトジェネティクス)とは、神経回路機能を調べるため光学と遺伝学を融合した研究分野。脳神経系における情報処理を理解するため、哺乳類やその他の動物においてin vivoでのミリ秒単位の時間的精度をもった制御を特徴とする。

記憶の文脈依存 Context-dependency memory




4記憶痕跡 (Engram)とシナプス可塑性



どのようにトラウマ記憶は、脳内に隠れ、どのようにしてそれを取り出すか。Science dailyより
How traumatic memories hide in the brain, and how to retrieve them



August 09, 2016


Western-style diet linked to state-dependent memory inhibition

西洋食は状態依存記憶抑制に結び付いている。Science dailyより

state-dependent memory 状態依存記憶
memory inhibition 記憶抑制

Obesity may ultimately be a disease of the brain, involving a progressive deterioration of various cognitive processes that influence eating. Researchers at Macquarie University have now shown that memory inhibition -- the useful ability to 'block out' memories that are no longer useful, which depends on a brain area called the hippocampus -- is linked to dietary excess. Usually, food-related memories should be at the forefront during hunger but then inhibited during fullness, so that thoughts of food are set aside when eating is no longer top priority.


Prior animal studies have shown that a Western diet -- one high in fats and sugars and low in fruit, vegetable and fiber -- impairs the memory inhibition abilities of the hippocampus. Practically, this could mean that a Western-style diet makes it harder to inhibit pleasant memories triggered by seeing or smelling palatable food. This would make it hard to resist delicious treats even if one were full.


The Macquarie researchers have now found evidence for this problem in humans, they reported this week at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB), the foremost society for research into all aspects of eating and drinking behaviour. The study supported by the Australian Research Council and led by PhD student Tuki Attuquayefio looked at healthy young people, some of whom ate a Western-style diet.

マッコーリー大学研究者は人間におけるこの問題の証拠を今や見つけて、彼らは、摂食および飲酒行動の全ての面を研究する最先端の研究会、食行動研究会(SSIB),の年次総会で今週報告した。豪州研究会議によってサポートされて、博士号学生Tuki Attuquayefioによって指導された研究は健常な若者を考察した。幾人かの若者は西洋風食事を摂食していた。

the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB) 食行動研究会
eating behaviour 摂食行動
Australian Research Council 豪州研究会議

Participants completed learning and memory tests that depend on the hippocampus and also rated their liking and wanting of palatable snack foods before and after a filling lunch. Participants who habitually ate a Western-style diet were slower at learning and poorer at remembering than those who ate a healthier diet, and more importantly showed much smaller reductions in wanting palatable snacks when tested full compared to hungry.


palatable snacks 美味しいスナック

The key finding is that memory performance and snack food ratings were linked. "Even though they were full, they still wanted to eat the sweet and fatty junk food," explained Tuki Attuquayefio. "What was even more interesting was that this effect was strongly related to their performance on the learning and memory task, suggesting that there is a link between the two via the hippocampus."

主要な研究結果は記憶パフォーマンスおよびナック食品評価がリンクしていたことです。「彼らが満腹であっても、彼らは甘くて脂っこいジャンクフードをまだ食べたがった。」とTuki Attuquayefioは説明した。「さらに最も興味深いことは、この効果が学習および記憶課題への彼らのパフォーマンスに強く関連していて、海馬を介して2つの間にリンクあるとことであった。」

In agreement with the animal research, people with greater intake of a high fat, high sugar diet may do more poorly on the learning and memory tests because of how the diet impacts the hippocampus.


The Macquarie University researchers believe inability to inhibit food memories when in a satiated physiological state could then explain the persistent desire for snacks.For otherwise healthy, lean, young people who routinely consume high-fat high-sugar diets,compromised hippocampal function may make it harder to regulate food intake and set them upon the road towards obesity.









Western diet is associated with a smaller hippocampus: a longitudinal investigation.


Western diet consumption and cognitive impairment: links to hippocampal dysfunction and obesity.





June 10, 2016


Self-soothing behaviors with particular reference to oxytocin release induced by non-noxious sensory stimulation


Self-soothing 自己慰撫
sensory stimulation 感覚刺激


Front Psychol. 2014; 5: 1529.
Published online 2015 Jan 12. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01529
PMCID: PMC4290532

Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg,1,2,* Linda Handlin,2 and Maria Petersson3
Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►



Oxytocin, a hypothalamic nonapeptide, is linked to increased levels of social interaction, well-being and anti-stress effects. The effects of oxytocin that is released by sensory stimulation during different kinds of interactive behaviors are often underestimated or even forgotten.


In fact, many of the positive effects caused during interaction, such a wellbeing, stress reduction and even health promotion, are indeed linked to oxytocin released in response to activation of various types of sensory nerves. Oxytocin is released in response to activation of sensory nerves during labor, breastfeeding and sexual activity.


In addition oxytocin is released in response to low intensity stimulation of the skin, e.g., in response to touch, stroking, warm temperature, etc. Consequently oxytocin is not only released during interaction between mothers and infants, but also during positive interaction between adults or between humans and animals.

low intensity stimulation 低強度刺激

Finally oxytocin is also released in response to suckling and food intake. Oxytocin released in the brain in response to sensory stimulation as a consequence of these types of interactive behaviors, contributes to every day wellbeing and ability to handle stress.


Food intake or sex may be used or even abused to achieve oxytocin-linked wellbeing and stress relief to compensate for lack of good relationships or when the levels of anxiety are high.


The present review article will summarize the role played by oxytocin released by sensory (in particular somatosensory) stimulation, during various kinds of interactive behaviors. Also the fact that the anti-stress effects of oxytocin are particularly strong when oxytocin is released in response to “low intensity” stimulation of the skin will be highlighted.


somatosensory 体性感覚

Keywords: oxytocin, non-noxious sensory stimulation, afferent nerves, anti-stress effects



略号 OT,OXT,9アミノ酸から成るバソプレッシンと類似したペプチドホルモンで、主要な下垂体後葉ホルモンの一つ。生化学辞典より

ペプチドとは 東邦大学理学部より








Tactile C fibers and their contributions to pleasant sensations and to tactile allodynia.


A Slow, Loving, 'Affective' Touch May Be Key to a Healthy Sense of Self. Science daily より


精油の香りを楽しむお茶会 AT CAFÉ SMILE 横浜根岸・6月18日(土)お知らせ





June 08, 2016


NHK Eテレ番組、モーガン・フリーマン 時空を超えて・選「人間にとって“神”とは何か?」を見ていた時体外離脱体験と脳との関係が紹介されていました。PUBMEDで調べたら下記の文献が出てきました。翻訳しましたが日本語がこなれていません。

モーガン・フリーマン 時空を超えて


The Out-of-Body Experience: Disturbed Self-Processing at the Temporo-Parietal Junction


Temporo-parietal junction (TPJ):側頭頭頂接合部


1.Olaf Blanke1 and
2.Shahar Arzy2

+ Author Affiliations

1.1Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland and the Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Brain-Mind Institute, Lausanne, Switzerland
2. 2Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland



Folk psychology postulates a spatial unity of self and body, a “real me” that resides in one’s body and is the subject of experience. The spatial unity of self and body has been challenged by various philosophical considerations but also by several phenomena, perhaps most notoriously the “out-of-body experience” (OBE) during which one’s visuo-spatial perspective and one’s self are experienced to have departed from their habitual position within one’s body.


Folk psychology 素朴心理学
spatial unity 空間統一
visuo-spatial  視空間の
philosophical considerations 哲学考察

Here the authors marshal evidence from neurology, cognitive neuroscience, and neuroimaging that suggests that OBEs are related to a failure to integrate multisensory information from one’s own body at the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ).

It is argued that this multisensory disintegration at the TPJ leads to the disruption of several phenomenological and cognitive aspects of self-processing, causing illusory reduplication, illusory self-location, illusory perspective, and illusory agency that are experienced as an OBE.


neurology 神経学
cognitive neuroscience 認知神経科学
neuroimaging 神経画像処理
Multi-sensoryの意味や和訳。 訳語 複数の感覚器官の -
Disintegration 崩壊
Reduplication 二重にすること
self-location 自己位置


側頭頭頂接合部(そくとう とうちょう せつごうぶ、英:Temporo-parietal junction 略:TPJ)は側頭葉と頭頂葉が接する領域。大脳皮質の一領域、外側溝の後方に位置する。脳回としては下頭頂小葉(縁上回と角回)の下部と上側頭回の後部に相当する。この領域は「自他の区別」や「心の理論」(TOM)[1]と関わる重要な役割を担っていると考えられている。またこの領域は体外離脱体験(OBE)や[2]、自己像幻視(AS)のような現象[3]と関わりを持つことが知られている。側頭頭頂接合部が損傷したり、この領域が電気刺激されることで、体外離脱体験が引き起こされる、という例が報告されている。







場所:JR根岸線 根岸駅近く Café Smile http://cafesmile2013.jimdo.com/  参加費:2,000円


精油の香りを楽しむお茶会 AT CAFÉ SMILE 横浜根岸・6月18日(土)お知らせ


April 22, 2016

どのようにトラウマ記憶は、脳内に隠れ、どのようにしてそれを取り出すか。Science daily より

How traumatic memories hide in the brain, and how to retrieve them

どのようにトラウマ記憶は、脳内に隠れ、どのようにしてそれを取り出すか。Science daily より

traumatic memories トラウマ記憶

Special brain mechanism discovered to store stress-related, unconscious memories


Some stressful experiences -- such as chronic childhood abuse -- are so overwhelming and traumatic, the memories hide like a shadow in the brain.


childhood abuse 児童虐待

At first, hidden memories that can't be consciously accessed may protect the individual from the emotional pain of recalling the event. But eventually those suppressed memories can cause debilitating psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder or dissociative disorders.


hidden memories 隠された記憶
suppressed memories 抑圧された記憶
post-traumatic stress disorder心的外傷後ストレス障害
dissociative disorders.解離性障害
psychological problems 心理的問題

A process known as state-dependent learning is believed to contribute to the formation of memories that are inaccessible to normal consciousness. Thus, memories formed in a particular mood, arousal or drug-induced state can best be retrieved when the brain is back in that state.


state-dependent learning  状態依存性学習
normal consciousness.通常の意識

In a new study with mice, Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered for the first time the mechanism by which state-dependent learning renders stressful fear-related memories consciously inaccessible.

"The findings show there are multiple pathways to storage of fear-inducing memories, and we identified an important one for fear-related memories," said principal investigator Dr. Jelena Radulovic, the Dunbar Professor in Bipolar Disease at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. "This could eventually lead to new treatments for patients with psychiatric disorders for whom conscious access to their traumatic memories is needed if they are to recover."

「研究結果は、恐怖を誘発する記憶を保持するための複数経路が存在することを示し、私たちは恐怖関連した記憶に対する重要なひとつのものを特定したと、ノースウェスタン大学、Feinberg School of Medicine、の主任研究員のDr. Jelena Radulovic, the Dunbar Professorは述べた。「これは、彼らが回復する場合には、最終的にトラウマ記憶に意識的にアクセスする必要としている精神疾患患者に対する新たな治療法につながる可能性があります。」

fear-inducing memories 恐怖誘発する記憶
Bipolar Disease 双極性障害
psychiatric disorders  精神疾患

It's difficult for therapists to help these patients, Radulovic said, because the patients themselves can't remember their traumatic experiences that are the root cause of their symptoms.


The best way to access the memories in this system is to return the brain to the same state of consciousness as when the memory was encoded, the study showed.The study will be published August 17 in Nature Neuroscience.


Changing the Brain's Radio Frequencies


Two amino acids, glutamate and GABA, are the yin and yang of the brain, directing its emotional tides and controlling whether nerve cells are excited or inhibited (calm). Under normal conditions the system is balanced. But when we are hyper-aroused and vigilant, glutamate surges. Glutamate is also the primary chemical that helps store memories in our neuronal networks in a way that they are easy to remember.


Radio Frequencies :高周波、
glutamate グルタミン酸

GABA, on the other hand, calms us and helps us sleep, blocking the action of the excitable glutamate. The most commonly used tranquilizing drug, benzodiazepine, activates GABA receptors in our brains.


tranquilizing drug 精神安定剤
benzodiazepine ベンゾジアゼピン

There are two kinds of GABA receptors. One kind, synaptic GABA receptors, works in tandem with glutamate receptors to balance the excitation of the brain in response to external events such as stress.


glutamate receptorグルタミン酸受容体

The other population, extra-synaptic GABA receptors, are independent agents. They ignore the peppy glutamate. Instead, their job is internally focused, adjusting brain waves and mental states according to the levels of internal chemicals, such as GABA, sex hormones and micro RNAs.Extra-synaptic GABA receptors change the brain's state to make us aroused, sleepy, alert, sedated, inebriated or even psychotic. However, Northwestern scientists discovered another critical role; these receptors also help encode memories of a fear-inducing event and then store them away, hidden from consciousness.

他の個体群、シナプス領域外GABAA 受容体は独立した媒介物です。それらは活発なグルタミン酸を無視します。代わりに、それらの働きは内部に焦点を当てていて、GABA、性ホルモン、およびマイクロRNAなどの内部の化学物資濃度に応じて、脳波および精神状態を調節します。シナプス領域外GABAA 受容体は、私たちを覚醒、眠気、

extrasynaptic GABAA receptors シナプス領域外GABAA 受容体

"The brain functions in different states, much like a radio operates at AM and FM frequency bands," Radulovic said. "It's as if the brain is normally tuned to FM stations to access memories, but needs to be tuned to AM stations to access subconscious memories.If a traumatic event occurs when these extra-synaptic GABA receptors are activated, the memory of this event cannot be accessed unless these receptors are activated once again, essentially tuning the brain into the AM stations."

「ラジオはAMとFMの周波数帯域で動作すると同じように、異なる状態において脳は機能します」と、Radulovicは述べた。脳は通常記憶にアクセスするためにFM局にチューニングされているかのようだが、潜在意識の記憶にアクセスするためにAM局にチューニングする必要があります。これらのシナプス領域外GABAA 受容体が活性化すると、トラウマの出来事が発生するならば、これらの受容体が、特に脳をAM局にチューニング、再度活性化されない限り、このトラウマ記憶にアクセスすることが出来ないです。」

subconscious memories 潜在意識の記憶

Retrieving Stressful Memories in Mice


In the experiment, scientists infused the hippocampus of mice with gaboxadol, a drug that stimulates extra-synaptic GABA receptors. "It's like we got them a little inebriated, just enough to change their brain state," Radulovic said.

実験では、科学者たちは、シナプス領域外GABAA 受容体を刺激する薬剤、ガボキサドールをマウスの海馬に注入した。「それは、私たちがマウスを少し酔ったようにしたようで、マウスの脳状態を変化させるに十分だ」とRadulovicは述べた。

gaboxadol ガボキサドール(不眠治療薬)

Then the mice were put in a box and given a brief, mild electric shock. When the mice were returned to the same box the next day, they moved about freely and weren't afraid, indicating they didn't recall the earlier shock in the space. However, when scientists put the mice back on the drug and returned them to the box, they froze, fearfully anticipating another shock.


"This establishes when the mice were returned to the same brain state created by the drug, they remembered the stressful experience of the shock," Radulovic said.


The experiment showed when the extra-synaptic GABA receptors were activated with the drug, they changed the way the stressful event was encoded. In the drug-induced state, the brain used completely different molecular pathways and neuronal circuits to store the memory.

シナプス領域外GABAA 受容体が薬剤で活性化されたときに、彼らはストレスの多い出来事がコードかされた方法を変化させたことを実験は示した。薬剤誘発状態では、脳は記憶を保存するために完全に異なる分子経路と神経回路を使用した。

"It's an entirely different system even at the genetic and molecular level than the one that encodes normal memories," said lead study author Vladimir Jovasevic, who worked on the study when he was a postdoctoral fellow in Radulovic's lab.

「それは、通常記憶をコードかするものより遺伝子および分子レベルでさえ全く異なったシステムであると」、彼がRadulovic's 研究所の博士研究員であった時に研究に取り組んだ研究著者Vladimir Jovasevic,は述べた。

postdoctoral fellow 博士研究員

This different system is regulated by a small microRNA, miR-33, and may be the brain's protective mechanism when an experience is overwhelmingly stressful.
この異なるシステムは小さなマイクロRNA,  miR-33,によって調節されて、経験が圧倒的にストレスの多いときに脳の防御機構になる可能性があります。

The findings imply that in response to traumatic stress, some individuals, instead of activating the glutamate system to store memories, activate the extra-synaptic GABA system and form inaccessible traumatic memories.

この研究結果は、トラウマストレスに応答して、記憶を保存するためにグルタミン酸系を活性化する代わりに、一部の個体は、シナプス領域外GABAA 受容体を活性化して、アクセスできないトラウマ記憶を形成することを意味します。

Traumatic Memories Rerouted and Hidden Away


Memories are usually stored in distributed brain networks including the cortex, and can thus be readily accessed to consciously remember an event. But when the mice were in a different brain state induced by gaboxadol, the stressful event primarily activated subcortical memory regions of the brain. The drug rerouted the processing of stress-related memories within the brain circuits so that they couldn't be consciously accessed.


subcortical 皮質下

A process known as state-dependent learning is believed to contribute to the formation of memories that are inaccessible to normal consciousness. Thus, memories formed in a particular mood, arousal or drug-induced state can best be retrieved when the brain is back in that state.



心的外傷後ストレス障害(しんてきがいしょうごストレスしょうがい、Posttraumatic stress disorder、PTSD)は、命の安全が脅かすような出来事、天災、事故、犯罪、虐待などによって強い精神的衝撃を受けることが原因で、著しい苦痛や、生活機能の障害をもたらしているストレス障害である[1]。

シナプス領域外GABAA 受容体
理化学研究所 脳科学総合研究センター





リアノン先生主催Botanica2016, University of Sussex, Brighton, England, September 2nd - 5th 2016